The Association for Latin Teaching

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ARLT

Classroom Latin

CLASSROOM PHRASEOLOGY

BY A. R. MUNDAY

Headmaster, The King's School, Chester 


(See also New Classroom Latin


It has been suggested at Summer Schools that it would be useful to have a pamphlet listing "question-and-answer" words and classroom vocabulary which are in common use in Oral Methods. 


Such a list is given in "Via Nova" by W. H. S. Jones (Cambridge), which I have used extensively myself, but unfortunately this book is not generally available to-day - (You can now access this text online here - DS)


As this article was going to press, I was fortunate enough to be shown a copy of a list of grammatical terms compiled by the late Dr. W. H. D. Rouse for a Summer School many years ago, and to check my own list against his and in some cases to modify and expand it. 


Most, if not all, of these terms are familiar in Latin, but to some teachers are not so familiar in Greek. Accordingly I have tried to list all of those that I have found useful, together with some which I have not used, but which may be of interest to others. I hope that this list will be helpful to those who are themselves contemplating greater use of Oral Methods in their own work. 


Reprinted from "Latin Teaching," Vol. xxviii, No. 4 February, 1953 

A. QUESTION-AND-ANSWER WORDS

quis-quid, etc.?

quo instrumento?

quo?

ubi?

unde?

quo modo?

cur?

quam ob rem?

quando?

qualis?

quantus-a-um?

quot?

quotus-a-um?

quotiens?

quo consilio?

qua de causa?

qua condicione?

utrum ... an?

who, what, to whom, etc.?

with what ?

to what place?

in what place?

from what place?

how?

why?

why?

when?

of what sort?

how big?

how many?

the "what-th"?

how often?

for what purpose?

for what reason?

on what condition?

(whether) ... or?

(Case)

(Ablative/Dative)

(ad, in,)

(in, Locative)

(a, ex,)

(Adverb)

(quia)

(ob, propter,)

(Temporal phrase)

(Adjective of quality)

(Adjective of quantity)

(Cardinal)

(Ordinal)

(Numeral adverb)

(ut)

(Gerund(ive) & causa)

(Conditional clause)


Grammatical Terms

i  verbum, nomen,

adiectivum, adverbium,

pronomen, praepositio, 

supinum, gerundium 

participium, -


ii  casus nominativus 

vocativus, accusativus, 

genitivus, dativus, 

ablativus, locativus


iii  masculini, feminini,

neutrius generis 

singulariter, pluraliter

prima, secunda, etc. persona


vi  tempus praesens, futurum, 

imperfectum, perfectum, 

plusquamperfectum,

futurum et perfectum (or futurum exactum)


vii  modus indicativus, imperativus, subiunctivus,

gerundivus, infinitivus


viii  voce activa, passiva,


ix  grades positivus, 

comparativus, superlativus


x  (conjugare), declinare


xi sententia

xii (Greek)

xiii (Greek)

xiv (Greek)

xv oratio recta, oratio obliqua


Verb, noun,

adjective, adverb,

pronoun, preposition, 

supine, gerund,

participle, article


Nominative case, etc.





of the masculine, feminine, neuter gender

in the single, plural,

first person, etc.


tense






mood



Voice 



degrees of comparison


to conjugate, decline


sentence




direct, indirect speech



NOTES. I personally use (i) Quae sunt partes principales for the principal parts of verbs and quae sunt partes for the comparative and superlative. (ii) (Greek) (iii) the cry ratio calling for a complete parsing of a noun or verb, e.g., Magister: Ratio "tulisses" Discipulus: secunda persona singulariter, tempus plusquamperfectum, subiunctivi modi, activa voce, fero-ferre-tali-latus-laturus  subiunctivus modus quia est post "cum". a quo verbo? calls just for the root word, e.g. fero and not the whole story.

Classroom words and phrases

ludus

cella, conclave

creta

tabula (nigra)

fenestra

ianua, porta 

sella

cathedra

baculum

charta, pagina

liber

libellus

atramentum

stiles, calamus

magister

magister summus, supremus

toga magistri

discipulus

puella

horologium

tintinnabulum sonat

salve-ete

vale-ete

conside, sede

tace-ete

noli exclamare

pensum

claude, aperi

incipe

perge, pergamus

satis

animum attende

specta

magna voce, clara voce

recita

noli dormire

redi ad sellam

veni huc

mane hic

abi

tange, tangete pedes

ita

minime

abi in malam rem

nolite colloqui

cape cretam

scribe, describe in tabula

intellegisne?

explica

quis explicare potest?

Latine

aliter Latine

quid significat?

iterum

frustra

fortasse

quod tempus?

quis modus?

cuius generis?

quota est pagina?

quotus est versus?

festina, celeriter


school

room

chalk

blackboard

window

door

chair

master's chair

stick

paper, page

book

notebook

ink

pencil, pen

master

headmaster

gown

pupil

girl

clock

the bell rings

good-morning, afternoon

goodbye

sit down

shut-up

don't shout

homework

close, open

begin

go on, let us go on

enough

attend

look at

in a loud, clear voice

read aloud

wake up

go back to your seat

come here

stay here

go away

touch your toes

yes

no

disappear

don't chatter

take the chalk

write, draw on . . . .

do you understand?

explain

who can explain?

in Latin

in another way

what does it mean?

again

in vain

perhaps

what tense?

what mood?

what gender?

which page?

which line?

hurry up


Offprints of this article can be obtained from the Editor, price ls. 0d. each or six for 5s. 0d. plus postage.

This list could be extended almost ad infinitum and can never be complete. Some phrases are in constant use; others enjoy a brief period of popularity and then disappear, while some become bywords in the form and never fail to get their laugh. 


It has been suggested that it is unnecessary to use the Latin grammatical terms but I have found that the boys ask for them and like to keep in the foreign language as much as possible. 


Within a very short time they become commonplace and as easy and quick to say as their English counterparts. I use only the most common and obvious of these words since any real discussion or explanation of abstract grammar and syntax is naturally a matter for English. 


Nor must it be supposed that the use of these terms in Latin or in Greek is essential for Oral Methods nor indeed that their use will of itself improve the boys' knowledge of Latin and Greek grammar. 


I have given the Greek grammatical terms for the benefit of those who are interested in such things but personally, I never use them. 



By the time Greek is begun, the Latin terms are thoroughly familiar and the boys are happy to stick to them in Greek  illogical, perhaps, but it works. 


Some people may hesitate to use these classroom phrases on the grounds that to do so is to misrepresent the Roman world that the Roman word fenestra was something very different from a modern window, but to point out at a later stage, the difference between the two can be the occasion for a very useful lesson in background. 


Other phrases which may prove useful can be culled from


"Via Nova " by W. H. S. Jones Cambridge;

"Latin on the Direct Method," Rouse and Appleton, University of London Press;

"Initium" (First Edition 1916) and Revised Edition 1926  by R. B. Appleton, Cambridge;

"The Teacher's Companion to Initium "; by R. B. Appleton

"Praeceptor" by S. O. Andrew, Oxford;

"Scenes from Sixth Form Life," by W. H. D. Rouse, Blackwell; and

"Principia" and "Pseudolus Noster" by C. W. E. Peckett and A. R. Munday, Wilding, Shrewsbury.

NEW: The complete list of words from Munday’s article, both Latin and Greek,  is now available as a pdf: download