Apart from these there was the time-
After dinner on the same day followed the Latin Debate, the motion being 'Ludi Litterarii sunt abolendi'. The President was obviously Praeses, and with the help of the four principal speakers he adequately dealt with the idea, not without a good deal of wit, ingenuity and energy all round. Several members conquered their natural modesty and spoke from the floor. To finish the evening's entertainment the Director conducted us through a number of Latin Chanties ; the standard was about beta plus for the choral singing.
On the evening before the course dispersed the Director gave us his blessing in a
valedictory speech, not in Latin because I suspect that he wanted to do more than
make a semi-
The usual array of text-
It will become obvious as the following accounts are read that the whole programme went off very pleasantly and without a hitch of any sort. From several remarks overheard it is clear that many went away with much food for thought, which I guess was wholly in keeping with the Director's original intentions.
"LATIN is an easier language than French". These were Mr. Peckett's first words to
the twelve boys from the Priory School who formed the Beginners' Demonstration Class.
"It is spelt as it is pronounced". And he wrote the short and long vowels on the
blackboard in two columns, the boys practised the sounds for a few moments and were
at once given appropriate Latin names which they wrote on the blackboard accurately
and with only the slightest hesitation. The next stage was the introduction, with
suitable actions, oI the verb-
During the five Demonstration lessons the boys systematically practised the sequence.
When they had learnt the Plural and the Imperatives they combined the verbs with
nouns and prepositions. Although progress was more rapid than would be possible with
After the introduction of "magister" during the first lesson the idea of the noun
developed : in the second lesson "Ego sum" and "Tu es" were repeated with their actions
; "ille est" and "hit est" were brought in as Mr. Peckett stood away from the boy
and near him. Without delay he began to use feminine nouns, walking round the class-
In the fourth lesson Mr. Peckett told the story of the lazy Maximus, using blackboard illustrations and questions like "Quem video?" "Quid facit ?" On the following day, after revision exercises, he asked if the boys would like another story. There was an eager response. When Mr. Peckett had drawn a girl on the board they practised the agreement of adjectives, "Haec est puella pulchra". "Video puellam pulchram". A row of girls was drawn. The boys noticed new endings and began to learn the numerals. Thus they continued, describing the monster which ate all the girls except one who cried and was afraid. Saint George was produced. The events which led to his slaughter of the monster were described through question and answer. "Quid facit puella ?" asked Mr. Peckett and drew her saying, "O Sancte Georgi, gratias tibi ago. Amo te".
"Gratias tibi ago" concluded the lesson because everyone received a packet of sweets; one boy even ventured, "Amo te". They filed out, Mr. Peckett adding, "Gratias vobis ago, Bonas ferias habete".
I HAVE been asked to write an account of these classes because this is the first
time I have attended a Summer School, and I look with fresh eyes. I have begun only
recently to teach Latin, and the oral method is quite new to me. Dr. Loehry emphasised
to us that he intended to conduct his three classes, not, as 'show' lessons but as
a routine 'follow-
Then Dr. Loehry went on to explain why the future perfect is mod where it is not used in English, and here, when discussion of a technical point was taking place, English was used for the first time. Then an exercise out of 'Principia'was done, (p.107) in which the future perfect was used in sentences, then the endings were omitted to be supplied by the pupils, and towards the end of the exercise, the whole 'cum' clause was to be supplied.
On Saturday morning, after a short test on the future perfect of the verbs they had taken down on Friday, they read the story which brings in the future perfect (Principia, p.110). In the course of the reading, the vocabulary was explained, or elucidated by Dr. Loehry, by examples in Latin, or by supplying opposites or synonyms. I felt this was particulary valuable. New words were put on blackboard and noted in vocabulary books. The reading did not last long, Dr. Loehry said, `Me taedet' ; and I for one felt he was justified, for it was the story of 'dog, dog, bite pig, pig won't cross the stile' — readers of my generation will recognise it, but to the boys it was 'terra incognita' and heavy going. So we passed on to an exercise (29 B.p.144) in which the infinitive of the verb was to be changed to future perfect. When a snag arose, English was used to clarify the point.
On Monday morning, a short test as usual on vocabulary from the story of the previous lesson. This time English was asked for sometimes, or an opposite, or principal parts of a verb. Dr. Loehry had explained to us before the lesson began that he had been asked to let the boys translate into English, the part of the story they had read on Saturday morning to show that they really did understand it. They were not very happy with it, but I felt that it was rather unfair to ask them to do it, especially in front of an audience, as it was not their usual practice. So on we went in Latin, Dr. Loehry making sure at the end of each sentence that it was understood, by asking Quis? Quid fecit? etc., or passing straight on if the sentence was simple.
This brought us to the end of Dr. Loehry's lessons, and I was glad to see that he rewarded the boys suitably for giving up their holiday. I enjoyed this part of the course, but I feel I could have profited more if I had been more familiar with first year work according to this method.
ON 2nd August, Mr. C. W. E. Peckett, Headmaster of the Ili wi ~ School, Shrewsbury, demonstrated to members of the Summer School a lesson on Consecutive Clauses with nine boys of his who were able and willing to attend.
Mr. Peckett immediately assigned his appropriate cognomen i,, each boy, and drawing
a picture of a discipulus on the black) no, ml announced, Hic est discipulus, cuius
Women est Bunterius, Qualm e,t Bunterius. The information was elicited that Bunterius
was pi til,, is I indeed tam pinguis ut surrey(-
From Bunterius, Mr. Peckett moved deftly to a more beautiful Puella, and by the same technique reached the tender confession, Puella est tam pulchra ut eam amem.
Examples of this kind in Primary sequence were multiplied by an induction method that made no mention of the abstract I;iw of sequence. Cause and effect were brought home far more cogent I y by an exposure of the various potations of Bibulus Quale vinitoi, quam antiquum vinum, quam duke vinum, quantum vini, quot Pocit It# vini, quot urns vini bibit Bibulus ? It mattered not : the result tit every indulgence was ut statim obdormiat.
When thorough drill had established the Clause of Result, bAil was now changed to bibebat, and Historic sequence went iii10 action and the whole process was repeated.
One would suppose that there was matter enough here for wit, lesson, but Mr. Peckett
found time for a reading De Pseudolo el Alveo wherein Result Clauses were further
illustrated. The meaning of each sentence was elucidated by question and answer (Latin(-
Next day, Mr. Peckett taught the same class the structure of complex sentences, a
lesson two terms ahead of their work to date. A number of simple sentences unfolded
the story of Pseudolus' well-
This lesson demanded a high degree of teaching skill and presence of mind, for while Mr. Peckett invited and accepted almost every suggestion from the class, he had to keep a wary eye on the developing forms, lest they should disintegrate in the hands of so many potters. The pupils, for their part, obviously relished the lesson, which did not seem to be beyond their resources. Although synthesis may add one more hazard to Prose Corporation at Ordinary level, it is of the very genius of the Latin tongue, and we who teach should have the moral courage to provide practice in it.
THE more we watch Dr. Loehry at work in the demonstratiion lessons or listen to him, either in his lectures or in informal conversation during the course of the Summer School, the clearer it becomes to us that his sometimes amazing results have very little to do with his use of the Oral Method of teaching Latin. It is his consistent and patient application of certain teaching principles based on some fundamental psychological facts and a sympathetic understanding of his pupils' minds that really forms his doctrine : the Oral Method is simply the vehicle for the practice of these principles.
Therefore in his series of lectures 'After the Beginning' (an account of his teaching and methods up to '0' Level) we are struck not so much by his particular way of introducing each construction as by his wisdom as a teacher. Much of the detail given in his lectures may in fact be found in the text books Principia and Pseudolus Noster, but unless we have first some understanding of the way in which this should be applied, the Oral Method may bring no more success —indeed rather less—than the Traditional.
`Never present the pupil with an abstract rule'.
`Build the unknown on to the known'.
`Never introduce more than one difficulty at a time'.
`Let the class push you : never pull them'.
Each of these precepts seems so obvious to us, yet many young teachers have found
that it is all too easy to disregard them altogether. To become convinced of their
validity one has only to apply or fail to apply them in conversation with a non English-
Each time Dr. Loehry introduces new work he does it by niv;iio of the same basic scheme. He uses the new construction in a fully prepared example and repeats it several times ; it is imitated by trusting, if uncomprehending pupils, and repeated until the soiiiiii grows familiar and finally its significance is deduced, with the use of English if necessary. Again to those who have tried such a method its merit seems obvious, but I think there are still some who would prefer to expound an abstract rule first of all, and then proceed to apply this rule in examples until a reluctant class admits to having some idea of what its teacher is talking about. The more intelligent children certainly may be successfully taught in this way: to many of us who have faced classes of children who are kindly termed the less academic, experience has shown that such an approach results more often than not in a heartbreaking sequence of bewilderment, mistrust and boredom. If we think carefully about the theory which underlies Dr. Loehry's practice we become less incredulous at his achievements. The pity is that such eminently wise theory should come to many as an almost revolutionary doctrine.
JUST before lunch on the first day of the course we were treated to a Lecture by the President. He had, he explained, given it earlier in the year in Manchester but it was new to his audience and provided yet another example of his ability to instruct and amuse simultaneously. His main points were soundly argued and clearly made
A worthwhile Latin course requires a daily period for four years as a bare minimum,
some can benefit from two years' study providing it is planned ; the third and fourth
years bring their own problems. As a valuable guide to principles at the various
stages he quoted the I.A.A.M. Handbook on The Teaching of Classics. He put up a defiant
defence for the writing of Latin sentences, even from the beginning and even if they
concerned sailors and roses; he was all in favour of chorus-
The third year of the course he saw as the most difficult, with adolescence at its climacteric, Latin on the move from synthetic to genuine, composition involving complex sentences. For the fourth year he seemed to consider Set Books on the whole a satisfactory diet.
The preceding gives the barest summary of his matter; full justice could be done to his manner only by quoting the Lecturer's ipsissima verba, which sadly enough funds and space are not available to do. Some idea of his style, which is consistently maintained throughout, may perhaps be given by one quotation from near the beginning:
". . it so happens on occasions of this kind that between the speaker who may be
the Head of some Public School or a don at a University and the humble chalky units
in front of him there yawns such a gap in the matter of time allowance, facilities,
and the standard to which their pupils may hope to be taken that sympathy can hardly
be said to begin. "I do not know", begins our speaker loftily, "if you happen to
read German, but if you could just skim through this little work of Von Stumfendorf,
provided you have a couple of free periods before you go in to take Greek History
with the Upper Sixths. . ." but the awestricken audience are only too painfully aware
that they do not read German, have not got a couple of free periods, don't take Greek
History, and their Upper Sixths consists of one half-
ALL these found their accustomed places in the week's work, and were well attended. The Prose and Verse Classes aroused their usual enthusiasm and gave members chances to practise what they preach. Such informal seminars allowing easy interchange of ideas forma valuable element of the School. The several members of the Teaching Staff concerned deserve special thanks for their efforts and for the time given to preparatory work.
ON the evening of Friday, July 29, the Summer School was both entertained and instructed
by Dr. J. Pinsent, of the Greek Faculty at Liverpool University, who took as his
subject the unusual oD(! of Homeric Book Illustration, with the assistance of slides.
The lecturer has taken as his field of research editions of Homer, in the original
and in translation, from the fifteenth century to 1850, the latter date roughly coinciding
with the superseding of engraving by the photogravure process. He first outlined
his methods, which consist mainly of combing libraries and second-
His main line of research concerns trends of countries and individual artists, political
conditions, and fashions mental and physical. Examples of such trends are the following
; we moderns are usually pro-
This was a most exciting lecture. Mr. Webster started by warning us that it is extremely
difficult for the non-
He divided the information under three heads—the army, the towns, and the countryside, confining his remarks about the army to the campaigns of the first two governors Aulus Plautus and Ostorius Scapula.
The latter are illustrated by a series of forts in a strip about forty miles wide along the line of the Fosse Way, which exhibit the development from tented camps to the standardised forts which are shown on Trajan's column. This frontier had required defence in depth, because the line Exe — Bristol Channel — Cotswolds — Leicestershire — Humber had not the physical barrier that marked the Roman frontiers elswhere. Moreover, it had to be actively defended for a long period, for Scapula's victory over Caratacus could not be followed up, and the Silures continued to make trouble until Nero was forced to order the advance to Wales and Anglesey —and even thereafter, for Hadrianic forts too have been found well back from the Welsh marches.
The investigation of the towns of this area partly reinforced this picture of war
and trouble -
Collingwood's theory of a gradual decline was further contradicted by evidence that showed that the 4th Century was the most flourishing period in Verulamium's history, and large public works continued into at least the 5th Century ; there was even Greek pottery at this level. Finally, excavations in the countryside had shown that the extremely primitive native hutments which General Pitt Rivers had found in Dorset were a universal feature of Roman Britain, and that this squalor persists side by side with the towns all along.
There are a lot of questions remaining to be answered, but it is clear that the Roman Britain was at once more prosperous for far longer, and far more insecure than anyone had imagined.
THERE is no aspect of Greek Art in which we can see and reflect upon the actual work of the artists so easily as in Pottery. Architecture requires a journey to Sicily or Greece. A few pieces of Sculpture may be seen in the Museums in a damaged state. Metalwork is rare, and if coins are more plentiful, they are not often displayed in representative numbers. But the museums of London, Paris, Berlin, Munich and New York house hundreds of Greek jars, bowls and cups. Each collection reflects the wide knowledge we have of Greek history and culture. It is true that only a few may be seen at the British Museum, but our Government could, for the price of a 'jet' aeroplane, repair the War Damage—or neglect—and put ten times the number on show.
These thoughts were suggested by, rather than expressed in, a lecture on Greek Pottery by Mr. Philip Barker at the Summer School. The magic of the projector—so much more brilliant than the 'Magic Lantern' of years ago—and the excellence of the slides brought vividly to sight and mind a series of outstanding pieces.
Mr. Barker did not claim an extensive knowledge of the subject fiend his choice of slides followed the usual pattern, the historical development from Minoan Crete to the decline in the Fourth Century, B.C.
What made the lecture unusually refreshing and stimulating was Mr. Barker's approach to the subject. He was formerly Art Master at the Priory School, and his experience as artist and teacher prompted him to concentrate on the beauty of line, shape and composition. He explained the problems which the painters faced in learning to relate their decoration to the shape of the vase. He made pertinent comparisons with the work of other periods, from the cave paintings of Altamina to Picasso and Matisse. One may, perhaps, disagree with his remark that the Oinochoe in the style of Andocides (circa 525 B.C.) is not beautiful. The front view of the chariot horses may be surprising, but they hold up their heads with effortless grace and keep their symmetrical pose quite unselfconsciously. The techniques of manufacture and painting were explained as simply as time permitted. The neglected subject of the evolution and aesthetic development of shapes would have required a separate lecture. The subject of Greek Pottery will always remain mostly Greek Painting.
As a curtain-
IN an aura of oak-
When the Minutes of the 1959 Annual General Meeting, from which there were no matters arising, had been accepted, we passed on to the next item, correspondence, which brought us greetings from several absent members including our former President, Mr. Munday, and our former Secretary, Mrs. Newey.
The President then proposed from the Chair that the words "Vice Presidents shall be ex officio, members of the Committee, if they so desire" be added to Article 3 of the Constitution : the statutory week's notice of this proposal had been given in the June number of LATIN TEACHING and it was carried unanimously. The President had preceded his proposal with an explanation of the motive which lay behind it—namely to enable newcomers to join the Committee without the loss of the services of members of long standing : for hitherto Vice Presidents had had to be elected to the Committee in the usual way.
Next came the elections : no opposition had been offered and the officers were re-
The Treasurer's report for 1959 brought the news that we were if not an affluent society at least a solvent one. The loss on the Summer School roundabouts was to some extent tempered by the profit on the swings of the Weekend Course : and there was a not inconsiderable reserve fund invested in National Savings Certificates. The report was accepted and the Association's thanks were expressed to the Treasurer and to Mr. Gravett, the Hon. Auditor.
Next to be called upon was the Editor of LATIN TEACHING who, reporting that the two
issues for 1959-
In the absence of the Secretary of the Archaeological Aids Sub-
This concluded the business of the Annual General Meeting and the proceedings closed with the expression of thanks to the domestic staff by Mr. Dapre and to the teaching staff by Miss McNaughton.