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The Association for Latin Teaching


ARLT Summer School 1960

held at Yeaton Peverey, Shrewsbury

Directed by Mr C.W.E. Peckett

Apart from these there was the time-honoured excursion by coach, this time on the Sunday afternoon into the outlying countryside, and short stops were made at Viriconium, Buildwas Abbey, Much Wenlock, Ludlow and Church Stretton. It made a very pleasant break with fine weather and no losses of personnel.

After dinner on the same day followed the Latin Debate, the motion being 'Ludi Litterarii sunt abolendi'. The President was obviously Praeses, and with the help of the four principal speakers he adequately dealt with the idea, not without a good deal of wit, ingenuity and energy all round. Several members conquered their natural modesty and spoke from the floor. To finish the evening's entertainment the Director conducted us through a number of Latin Chanties ; the standard was about beta plus for the choral singing.

On the evening before the course dispersed the Director gave us his blessing in a valedictory speech, not in Latin because I suspect that he wanted to do more than make a semi-serious literary gesture. He did in fact indulge in a little unfashionable moralising, Headmaster-like, earnestly but unpompously reminding us that we as Classicists and Christians have, or should have, values f;11 different from those of the many materialists of this age. There followed a moving dramatic reading from Sophocles given by the Director and Mr. J. A. Jones, a member of the course. The rest of the evening was spent in jollifications, mainly in the form of classical charades, in which nearly every one played some part. One or two of the episodes struck at least one member of the audience as either under-rehearsed or unrehearsed or perhaps unpremeditated altogether. Whatever the explanation, the whole proceedings went off with great enthusiasm. Even the School Cook, who was present and presumably Latinless, followed the goings-on with obvious comprehension; surely a great tribute to the acting (or perhaps the answer is that she is a descendant of the Silures).

The usual array of text-books was on display throughout the week, arranged by Miss Wood. Much use was made of it, and thanks are due to the organiser and her helpers.

It will become obvious as the following accounts are read that the whole programme went off very pleasantly and without a hitch of any sort. From several remarks overheard it is clear that many went away with much food for thought, which I guess was wholly in keeping with the Director's original intentions.



"LATIN is an easier language than French". These were Mr. Peckett's first words to the twelve boys from the Priory School who formed the Beginners' Demonstration Class. "It is spelt as it is pronounced". And he wrote the short and long vowels on the blackboard in two columns, the boys practised the sounds for a few moments and were at once given appropriate Latin names which they wrote on the blackboard accurately and with only the slightest hesitation. The next stage was the introduction, with suitable actions, oI the verb-sequence, "surgo, ambulo, revenio, sedeo". After success ful imitation Mr. Peckett began to use the Second and Third persons, pointing to the boy who was acting with his fore-finger or with his thumb over his shoulder. The boys enjoyed copying him and were soon relishing the part of Master with Mr. Peckett's gown trailing behind them. At this point they discussed briefly what they had been doing and after an interval in which they learnt "Ego sum", "Tu es" they tabulated the Persons singular of the Verbs.

During the five Demonstration lessons the boys systematically practised the sequence. When they had learnt the Plural and the Imperatives they combined the verbs with nouns and prepositions. Although progress was more rapid than would be possible with a normal-sized class, the drill was rigorous, designed to fix the verb-endings in the boys' minds and to clarify, through action and the appropriate words, any confusion there might be between singular and plural and the different persons. Nothing was left to chance.

After the introduction of "magister" during the first lesson the idea of the noun developed : in the second lesson "Ego sum" and "Tu es" were repeated with their actions ; "ille est" and "hit est" were brought in as Mr. Peckett stood away from the boy and near him. Without delay he began to use feminine nouns, walking round the class-room and saying, "Haec est fenestra : porta" etc. The class repeated after him, "Ilia est fenestra" etc. 2 Second Declension nouns were used, libellus, gladius, discipulus, and "Hit est", "Ille est" were dutifully chanted. Finally they discussed what they had done : the idea of gender presented no difficulties even when neuter nouns were introduced. "Ad" followed by the noun with a different ending was quickly assinulated during the next lesson. Then came the chief stumbling-block of the course. Using the other verb-sequence Mr. Peckett, suiting actions to words, said, "Pulso discipulum : sellam : portam" etc. "Tango discipulum" etc. "Teneo libellum : discipulum". Boys imitated him. The question, "Why this change ?" elicited few replies, ingenious and incorrect, Finally Mr. Peckett picked up a note-book, shook it fiercely, said, "Teneo libellum" and enquired, "What does 'libellus' -feel about it ?" "Awful", was the answer. Laughter. Then one boy said, "All those things have been done to it". So they tabulated this ending as one Used after "ad" or "when something is done to it" : "libellus" is having something done to him, feels awful and says "um". After this flic Vocative and the Ablative after "in" came easily.

In the fourth lesson Mr. Peckett told the story of the lazy Maximus, using blackboard illustrations and questions like "Quem video?" "Quid facit ?" On the following day, after revision exercises, he asked if the boys would like another story. There was an eager response. When Mr. Peckett had drawn a girl on the board they practised the agreement of adjectives, "Haec est puella pulchra". "Video puellam pulchram". A row of girls was drawn. The boys noticed new endings and began to learn the numerals. Thus they continued, describing the monster which ate all the girls except one who cried and was afraid. Saint George was produced. The events which led to his slaughter of the monster were described through question and answer. "Quid facit puella ?" asked Mr. Peckett and drew her saying, "O Sancte Georgi, gratias tibi ago. Amo te".

"Gratias tibi ago" concluded the lesson because everyone received a packet of sweets; one boy even ventured, "Amo te". They filed out, Mr. Peckett adding, "Gratias vobis ago, Bonas ferias habete".



I HAVE been asked to write an account of these classes because this is the first time I have attended a Summer School, and I look with fresh eyes. I have begun only recently to teach Latin, and the oral method is quite new to me. Dr. Loehry emphasised to us that he intended to conduct his three classes, not, as 'show' lessons but as a routine 'follow-on' from their first-year work. I must say that I thought both sets of boys delightful. Dr. Loehry's boys were most business-like, cleaning the black-board, putting up the date, etc. The first morning they were to be taught 'cum, clauses with the future perfect. Dr. Loehry began with a brief test on the future and the perfect, a good 'lead-in' to the next move. Then they went through the 'surgo—ainbulo—revenio—sedeo `routine to' Cum surrexero, ambulabo, cum ambulavero, reveniam. Various boys repeated this in the Ist person, then 2nd and 3rd person were elicited. These were put on the black board, and the plural forms got by induction. The boys knew this method well, and performed creditably. Then a few irregular verbs were done.

Then Dr. Loehry went on to explain why the future perfect is mod where it is not used in English, and here, when discussion of a technical point was taking place, English was used for the first time. Then an exercise out of 'Principia'was done, (p.107) in which the future perfect was used in sentences, then the endings were omitted to be supplied by the pupils, and towards the end of the exercise, the whole 'cum' clause was to be supplied.

On Saturday morning, after a short test on the future perfect of the verbs they had taken down on Friday, they read the story which brings in the future perfect (Principia, p.110). In the course of the reading, the vocabulary was explained, or elucidated by Dr. Loehry, by examples in Latin, or by supplying opposites or synonyms. I felt this was particulary valuable. New words were put on blackboard and noted in vocabulary books. The reading did not last long, Dr. Loehry said, `Me taedet' ; and I for one felt he was justified, for it was the story of 'dog, dog, bite pig, pig won't cross the stile' — readers of my generation will recognise it, but to the boys it was 'terra incognita' and heavy going. So we passed on to an exercise (29 B.p.144) in which the infinitive of the verb was to be changed to future perfect. When a snag arose, English was used to clarify the point.

On Monday morning, a short test as usual on vocabulary from the story of the previous lesson. This time English was asked for sometimes, or an opposite, or principal parts of a verb. Dr. Loehry had explained to us before the lesson began that he had been asked to let the boys translate into English, the part of the story they had read on Saturday morning to show that they really did understand it. They were not very happy with it, but I felt that it was rather unfair to ask them to do it, especially in front of an audience, as it was not their usual practice. So on we went in Latin, Dr. Loehry making sure at the end of each sentence that it was understood, by asking Quis? Quid fecit? etc., or passing straight on if the sentence was simple.

This brought us to the end of Dr. Loehry's lessons, and I was glad to see that he rewarded the boys suitably for giving up their holiday. I enjoyed this part of the course, but I feel I could have profited more if I had been more familiar with first year work according to this method.



ON 2nd August, Mr. C. W. E. Peckett, Headmaster of the Ili wi ~ School, Shrewsbury, demonstrated to members of the Summer School a lesson on Consecutive Clauses with nine boys of his who were able and willing to attend.

Mr. Peckett immediately assigned his appropriate cognomen i,, each boy, and drawing a picture of a discipulus on the black) no, ml announced, Hic est discipulus, cuius Women est Bunterius, Qualm e,t Bunterius. The information was elicited that Bunterius was pi til,, is I indeed tam pinguis ut surrey(- non possit.

From Bunterius, Mr. Peckett moved deftly to a more beautiful Puella, and by the same technique reached the tender confession, Puella est tam pulchra ut eam amem.

Examples of this kind in Primary sequence were multiplied by an induction method that made no mention of the abstract I;iw of sequence. Cause and effect were brought home far more cogent I y by an exposure of the various potations of Bibulus Quale vinitoi, quam antiquum vinum, quam duke vinum, quantum vini, quot Pocit It# vini, quot urns vini bibit Bibulus ? It mattered not : the result tit every indulgence was ut statim obdormiat.

When thorough drill had established the Clause of Result, bAil was now changed to bibebat, and Historic sequence went iii10 action and the whole process was repeated.

One would suppose that there was matter enough here for wit, lesson, but Mr. Peckett found time for a reading De Pseudolo el Alveo wherein Result Clauses were further illustrated. The meaning of each sentence was elucidated by question and answer (Latin(-) and the boys were given plenty of practise in expressing the facts, aliter Latin(-.

Next day, Mr. Peckett taught the same class the structure of complex sentences, a lesson two terms ahead of their work to date. A number of simple sentences unfolded the story of Pseudolus' well-meaning capture of a burglar who turned out to be his owii father. The all-important starting point in this exercise was to determine, who did what main job. Then to place that subject al the beginning and that action at the end. Between lay clauses iii varying kinds of dependence.

This lesson demanded a high degree of teaching skill and presence of mind, for while Mr. Peckett invited and accepted almost every suggestion from the class, he had to keep a wary eye on the developing forms, lest they should disintegrate in the hands of so many potters. The pupils, for their part, obviously relished the lesson, which did not seem to be beyond their resources. Although synthesis may add one more hazard to Prose Corporation at Ordinary level, it is of the very genius of the Latin tongue, and we who teach should have the moral courage to provide practice in it.

H. J.S.


THE more we watch Dr. Loehry at work in the demonstratiion lessons or listen to him, either in his lectures or in informal conversation during the course of the Summer School, the clearer it becomes to us that his sometimes amazing results have very little to do with his use of the Oral Method of teaching Latin. It is his consistent and patient application of certain teaching principles based on some fundamental psychological facts and a sympathetic understanding of his pupils' minds that really forms his doctrine : the Oral Method is simply the vehicle for the practice of these principles.

Therefore in his series of lectures 'After the Beginning' (an account of his teaching and methods up to '0' Level) we are struck not so much by his particular way of introducing each construction as by his wisdom as a teacher. Much of the detail given in his lectures may in fact be found in the text books Principia and Pseudolus Noster, but unless we have first some understanding of the way in which this should be applied, the Oral Method may bring no more success —indeed rather less—than the Traditional.

`Never present the pupil with an abstract rule'.

`Build the unknown on to the known'.

`Never introduce more than one difficulty at a time'.

`Let the class push you : never pull them'.

Each of these precepts seems so obvious to us, yet many young teachers have found that it is all too easy to disregard them altogether. To become convinced of their validity one has only to apply or fail to apply them in conversation with a non English-speaking person, and watch the expression of confidence on his face fiidc ii, bewilderment as one deliberately introduces irrelevant words miol unusual grammar.

Each time Dr. Loehry introduces new work he does it by niv;iio of the same basic scheme. He uses the new construction in a fully prepared example and repeats it several times ; it is imitated by trusting, if uncomprehending pupils, and repeated until the soiiiiii grows familiar and finally its significance is deduced, with the use of English if necessary. Again to those who have tried such a method its merit seems obvious, but I think there are still some who would prefer to expound an abstract rule first of all, and then proceed to apply this rule in examples until a reluctant class admits to having some idea of what its teacher is talking about. The more intelligent children certainly may be successfully taught in this way: to many of us who have faced classes of children who are kindly termed the less academic, experience has shown that such an approach results more often than not in a heartbreaking sequence of bewilderment, mistrust and boredom. If we think carefully about the theory which underlies Dr. Loehry's practice we become less incredulous at his achievements. The pity is that such eminently wise theory should come to many as an almost revolutionary doctrine.


JUST before lunch on the first day of the course we were treated to a Lecture by the President. He had, he explained, given it earlier in the year in Manchester but it was new to his audience and provided yet another example of his ability to instruct and amuse simultaneously. His main points were soundly argued and clearly made

A worthwhile Latin course requires a daily period for four years as a bare minimum, some can benefit from two years' study providing it is planned ; the third and fourth years bring their own problems. As a valuable guide to principles at the various stages he quoted the I.A.A.M. Handbook on The Teaching of Classics. He put up a defiant defence for the writing of Latin sentences, even from the beginning and even if they concerned sailors and roses; he was all in favour of chorus-work, class competitions, and other 'outmoded' techniques. As for the Direct Method he reluctantly decided he was not up to practising it.

The third year of the course he saw as the most difficult, with adolescence at its climacteric, Latin on the move from synthetic to genuine, composition involving complex sentences. For the fourth year he seemed to consider Set Books on the whole a satisfactory diet.

The preceding gives the barest summary of his matter; full justice could be done to his manner only by quoting the Lecturer's ipsissima verba, which sadly enough funds and space are not available to do. Some idea of his style, which is consistently maintained throughout, may perhaps be given by one quotation from near the beginning:

". . it so happens on occasions of this kind that between the speaker who may be the Head of some Public School or a don at a University and the humble chalky units in front of him there yawns such a gap in the matter of time allowance, facilities, and the standard to which their pupils may hope to be taken that sympathy can hardly be said to begin. "I do not know", begins our speaker loftily, "if you happen to read German, but if you could just skim through this little work of Von Stumfendorf, provided you have a couple of free periods before you go in to take Greek History with the Upper Sixths. . ." but the awestricken audience are only too painfully aware that they do not read German, have not got a couple of free periods, don't take Greek History, and their Upper Sixths consists of one half-resolute girl, with a little shaky accidence behind her and practically no syntax in front. I trust then that I shall be more realistic about what can and what cannot be done".



ALL these found their accustomed places in the week's work, and were well attended. The Prose and Verse Classes aroused their usual enthusiasm and gave members chances to practise what they preach. Such informal seminars allowing easy interchange of ideas forma valuable element of the School. The several members of the Teaching Staff concerned deserve special thanks for their efforts and for the time given to preparatory work.



ON the evening of Friday, July 29, the Summer School was both entertained and instructed by Dr. J. Pinsent, of the Greek Faculty at Liverpool University, who took as his subject the unusual oD(! of Homeric Book Illustration, with the assistance of slides. The lecturer has taken as his field of research editions of Homer, in the original and in translation, from the fifteenth century to 1850, the latter date roughly coinciding with the superseding of engraving by the photogravure process. He first outlined his methods, which consist mainly of combing libraries and second-hand bookshops, and reported a triumph of coincidence, which had brought him a two-volume early illustrated edition of Pope's "Iliad", found in Shrewsbury market that very day. He caused astonishment by mentioning the size of his card-index of editions.

His main line of research concerns trends of countries and individual artists, political conditions, and fashions mental and physical. Examples of such trends are the following ; we moderns are usually pro-Hector, earlier artists were pro-Achilles ; the Agamemnon-Menelaus theme was exalted by the French artists of the Louis Quatorze period ; costume depiction ranges from the unaffected contemporary of the earliest editions to the modified classic of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, until the discoveries at Pompeii brought in the classic in its entirety. The speaker emphasized that illustrated Homers were in the luxury class, and when they were cheapened for wider consumption, publishers often borrowed from the artists of other editions. He made the special point that the early eighteenth century, as we should expect, delighted in battle scenes, and put forward the view that a taste for fighting was part of the Roman make-up. so that when the Pax Romany was established under the Empire, the nobles took to fighting amongst themselves and hastened its dissolution.

Two picture-themes were shown on slides, the Embassy to Achilles, and Hector's farewell to Andromache , the speaker showed how they were treated by different artists, and the interplay and comparison between them. The sequences ended with the dawning of Victorianism, and names famous or once-famous included Mme Dacier, Flaxman and Fuseli. The lecturer's lively and forceful manner contributed much to the enjoyment of his audience, which was further enhanced by an exhibition of specimens of his research, including a Russian version of the Odyssey published in 1958.

ROMAN BRITAIN Mr. Graham Webster

This was a most exciting lecture. Mr. Webster started by warning us that it is extremely difficult for the non-specialist to gain a coherent view of the history of Roman Britain in the light of the latest digs, partly becase of the disturbing implications of the new evidence, and partly because of the unsatisfactory attitude of publishers. On the one hand Collingwood's framework had been exploded, and nothing as yet could be put in its place ; on the other, publishers continued to reprint out of date works and refused new ones. (The latter is perhaps a matter for agitation by the A.R.L.T.).

He divided the information under three heads—the army, the towns, and the countryside, confining his remarks about the army to the campaigns of the first two governors Aulus Plautus and Ostorius Scapula.

The latter are illustrated by a series of forts in a strip about forty miles wide along the line of the Fosse Way, which exhibit the development from tented camps to the standardised forts which are shown on Trajan's column. This frontier had required defence in depth, because the line Exe — Bristol Channel — Cotswolds — Leicestershire — Humber had not the physical barrier that marked the Roman frontiers elswhere. Moreover, it had to be actively defended for a long period, for Scapula's victory over Caratacus could not be followed up, and the Silures continued to make trouble until Nero was forced to order the advance to Wales and Anglesey —and even thereafter, for Hadrianic forts too have been found well back from the Welsh marches.

The investigation of the towns of this area partly reinforced this picture of war and trouble -. it now appeared that the fortifications of Great Casterton, in Rutland, and Verulamium must be dated to the end of the 2nd Century, not to the middle of the first as formerly thought, and that there was a further set of fortifications erected in the 4th Century. The latter are on a large scale, and repeated elsewhere, at London, Kentchester and Mildenhall, all on exactly the same pattern, huge bastions presumably for the mounting of catapaults, that must have been erected as a result of a central edict. Who were the besiegers who were so to be repelled ? And why was this done in Britain and not on the continent ?

Collingwood's theory of a gradual decline was further contradicted by evidence that showed that the 4th Century was the most flourishing period in Verulamium's history, and large public works continued into at least the 5th Century ; there was even Greek pottery at this level. Finally, excavations in the countryside had shown that the extremely primitive native hutments which General Pitt Rivers had found in Dorset were a universal feature of Roman Britain, and that this squalor persists side by side with the towns all along.

There are a lot of questions remaining to be answered, but it is clear that the Roman Britain was at once more prosperous for far longer, and far more insecure than anyone had imagined.



THERE is no aspect of Greek Art in which we can see and reflect upon the actual work of the artists so easily as in Pottery. Architecture requires a journey to Sicily or Greece. A few pieces of Sculpture may be seen in the Museums in a damaged state. Metalwork is rare, and if coins are more plentiful, they are not often displayed in representative numbers. But the museums of London, Paris, Berlin, Munich and New York house hundreds of Greek jars, bowls and cups. Each collection reflects the wide knowledge we have of Greek history and culture. It is true that only a few may be seen at the British Museum, but our Government could, for the price of a 'jet' aeroplane, repair the War Damage—or neglect—and put ten times the number on show.

These thoughts were suggested by, rather than expressed in, a lecture on Greek Pottery by Mr. Philip Barker at the Summer School. The magic of the projector—so much more brilliant than the 'Magic Lantern' of years ago—and the excellence of the slides brought vividly to sight and mind a series of outstanding pieces.

Mr. Barker did not claim an extensive knowledge of the subject fiend his choice of slides followed the usual pattern, the historical development from Minoan Crete to the decline in the Fourth Century, B.C.

What made the lecture unusually refreshing and stimulating was Mr. Barker's approach to the subject. He was formerly Art Master at the Priory School, and his experience as artist and teacher prompted him to concentrate on the beauty of line, shape and composition. He explained the problems which the painters faced in learning to relate their decoration to the shape of the vase. He made pertinent comparisons with the work of other periods, from the cave paintings of Altamina to Picasso and Matisse. One may, perhaps, disagree with his remark that the Oinochoe in the style of Andocides (circa 525 B.C.) is not beautiful. The front view of the chariot horses may be surprising, but they hold up their heads with effortless grace and keep their symmetrical pose quite unselfconsciously. The techniques of manufacture and painting were explained as simply as time permitted. The neglected subject of the evolution and aesthetic development of shapes would have required a separate lecture. The subject of Greek Pottery will always remain mostly Greek Painting.

As a curtain-raiser, an account was given of a local excavation which Mr. Barker, now Area Tutor for Adult Education in Shropshire, had come from digging at the site of a Norman timber fortress dating from just after the Conquest, and he was able to report on the latest discoveries and the problems which they offered for solution.



IN an aura of oak-panelled splendour the Association's Annual General Meeting took place in the Common Room of St. Margaret's School, Yeaton Peverey, on Tuesday, August 2nd, 1960, with the President, Mr. T. W. Melluish in the Chair.

When the Minutes of the 1959 Annual General Meeting, from which there were no matters arising, had been accepted, we passed on to the next item, correspondence, which brought us greetings from several absent members including our former President, Mr. Munday, and our former Secretary, Mrs. Newey.

The President then proposed from the Chair that the words "Vice Presidents shall be ex officio, members of the Committee, if they so desire" be added to Article 3 of the Constitution : the statutory week's notice of this proposal had been given in the June number of LATIN TEACHING and it was carried unanimously. The President had preceded his proposal with an explanation of the motive which lay behind it—namely to enable newcomers to join the Committee without the loss of the services of members of long standing : for hitherto Vice Presidents had had to be elected to the Committee in the usual way.

Next came the elections : no opposition had been offered and the officers were re-elected and four new committee members appointed.

The Treasurer's report for 1959 brought the news that we were if not an affluent society at least a solvent one. The loss on the Summer School roundabouts was to some extent tempered by the profit on the swings of the Weekend Course : and there was a not inconsiderable reserve fund invested in National Savings Certificates. The report was accepted and the Association's thanks were expressed to the Treasurer and to Mr. Gravett, the Hon. Auditor.

Next to be called upon was the Editor of LATIN TEACHING who, reporting that the two issues for 1959-60 had contained articles by members and non-members, book reviews and accounts of the Association's activities, indicated his readiness to receive contributions for future numbers. The advertisements in the journal, he said, were ably dealt with by Mr. Duncan and the distribution and accounts by Miss Dodd. The Editor and his assistants were warmly thanked for their untiring work in connection with the production of the journal.

In the absence of the Secretary of the Archaeological Aids Sub-Committee, Mr. Boyd presented the report. Borrowings had continued, but less frequently than in the preceding year. There had been several additions to the collection and notable among them was a bronze strigil which the generous gift of Miss Billing, one of the Association's Vice Presidents, had enabled us to acquire. Omitting the usual discussion of the work of the course, for which a separate time had been appointed, we looked to the future and heard that the 1961 Summer School would take place in the comfortable and hospitable surroundings of the College of St. Matthias, Fishponds, Bristol from Wednesday, August 23rd to Wednesday, August 30th. Suggestions were sought for the scene of our 1962 gathering and a request was made by our Scottish members for a Northern venue. As for the next weekend Course, this was to be held in London on March 3rd and 4th, 1961, and it was hoped that Woodberry Down School, where the very successful 1060 course was held, would again be available.

This concluded the business of the Annual General Meeting and the proceedings closed with the expression of thanks to the domestic staff by Mr. Dapre and to the teaching staff by Miss McNaughton.

OUR thirty-seventh Summer School

was held at St. Margaret's, Yeaton Peverey, near Shrewsbury during the week beginning 28th July—an unusual time, very soon after the end of the summer term. The intention was to give the chance of attendance to teachers from the North, and especially from Scotland, where schools reassemble before the end of August. Several did in fact come, and the usual total was reached, to be precise forty-five all told.

The programme was carried through exactly as planned, in a very friendly and informal atmosphere. The Director—Mr. C. W. E. Peckett, Headmaster of the Priory, School, Shrewsbury—welcomed the members of the School after supper on the first evening, and the working 'time-table' began on the next morning. The main items are described by various members in the pages which follow.