To observe the Direct Method in use, was, for the writer, i most valuable and joyful experience. The speed at which the boys, who came to the class with no previous knowledge of Latin, grasped the grammatical ideas of tense, number, gender and case came as a surprise. The present tense of all four conjugations, the genders of nouns and pronouns, the difference between singular and plural together with some differences of case were learnt.
We were given to understand that the boys were a cross section from the new entry for Newcastle Grammar School and it did not appear to a number of us that they were particularly promising material for Dr. Loehry. Yet, under his expert guidance, they soon became quick in grasping new points, showing obvious pleasure in mastering fresh work. The attention of the class, right from the beginning, was riveted upon Dr. Loehry and the work in hand so that rapid progress was made. Fortunate the teacher, whether he teaches Latin by the Direct Method or not, who has enthusiasm, vigour, histrionic gifts, sympathy and humour. These qualities Dr. Loehry has in abundance, and it was delightful to see how, in using them, he gave the boys confidence and how quickly the boys placed their trust in him. Given such a relationship, it is not surprising that pupils learn rapidly, eagerly, with a real sense of enjoyment and achievement. It should be emphasised here, that successful teaching on this method should be as orderly and thorough as teaching on other methods. Dr. Loehry's oral work was carefully followed up with work on the blackboard, which the boys copied and learnt when it was felt that the new work was understood. We were told that under normal classroom practice longer time would be taken to cover the same ground.
The Fabula, based on the boys' own experience, was the highlight of the lesson and was a fine illustration of the play-
"Id quoque enim non ab nulla ratione videtur:
Sed veluti pueris absinthia taetra medentes
Cum dare conantur, pries oral, pocula circum,
Contingent mellis dulci flavoque liquore,
Ut puerorum aetas improvida ludificetur
Labrorum tenus, interea perpotet amarum
Absinthi laticem, deceptaque non capiatur,
Sed potius tali pacto recreata valescat. . . ."
The boys' need for activity and desire for fun were use(I h, stimulate them intellectually so that we saw Latin become a li\,iiir language used to express ideas simply and clearly.
Some words of warning are necessary. This method is not the easier way of teaching Latin. Good discipline is essential -
THESE groups met daily in the customary way after the Beginners' Demonstration Classes and were conducted by Messrs. Wilmot and Gravett and Miss Wood at three different evels of sophistication. Nothing but good came from these " do-
THIS series of three lectures formed a sequel to the demonstration classes in the oral method of Latin teaching given by Dr. Loehry. He emphasized that such a "follow-
Dr. Loehry listed three main principles of the oral method. As had been shown in the demonstration class the pupils learned intuitively. At first they merely initiated, then understanding came—"getout not guessing, as he called it—and finally, after practice, a link, could be formed. The other two principles were closely linked The teacher must always proceed from the known to the unknown and only one difficulty should be tackled at a time. Thus in the case of younger pupils, for whom writing was a task in itself, written work ought not to be attempted until the oral work had been completely mastered.
Although he stressed that the oral method was not an end in itself Dr. Loehry claimed that it possessed considerable advantage.." over the traditional system in the teaching of weaker pupils both in its essential liveliness and its comparatively quicker results whiilst it boosted the pupils' morale.
Dr. Loehry proceeded to describe his own approach to some common problems of grammar and syntax. He mentioned the early introduction of the Present Participle and its recognition as aii Adjective and showed how the more complex sentence constructions could be shown as improvements upon elementary ideas, e.g. the Relative Pronoun substituted, "aliter Latine," for a conjunction and Personal Pronoun. Similarly the earlier of two co-
IT is not often that Classicists have the opportunity of listening to such an eminent scientist as Professor Vick relating the study of Science to that of Classics. The lecture therefore on August 27th was eagerly awaited by all.
He began by stressing the need for more connections between science and classics, and said that very few non-
Professor Vick then said he would outline the characteristics of Modern Science.
"Faith in the Uniformity of Nature"
The work of physicists was based on an act of faith, i.e. that nature has always acted and will always act in the same way, e.g. Newton's first law of motion. One studies those things in which this uniformity exists. On the whole the Greeks did not think like this.
Picking out those things that conform to certain laws.
3. Controlled and Planned Experiment and Observation
This was totally absent during 800 years of Greek thought.
4. Mathematical formulation of logical arguments
Mathematics form a language method of developing logical argument quickly and far. This was used to some extent by the Greeks but the expression of numerals among the ancients—e.g. Roman numerals—was very cumbersome and slow.
Allied to this is the "Use of Models" actual or conceptual. These enable scientists to simplify the processes of nature on a smaller scale. Analogies can be useful.
Professor Vick went on to say that a real obstacle to present-
5. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
i.e. prediction and con elusions therefrom.
6. Imagination and Creative Thought.
This is the major need of a creative scientist. Physical science are as much a product of the human mind as Homer, for example.
Professor Vick now turned to Greek science—its nature and achievements.
In the 6th century B.C. the Milesians, such as Thales and Anaximander, were striving for simplicity, seeking a basic substance which underlay all matter. From this origin came the conception of the conservation of matter. Undoubtedly, however, the Greeks were able to draw upon the background of 3000 years of Egyptian and Babylonian thought for their insight into the nature of things. The Egyptians were technologists—but not the Greeks—there was no interaction of science and technology therefore, such as in modern times hastens the development of both.
Anaximander began what was relevant to the process of abstraction—in using models of the heavenly bodies, for instance.
Pythagoras' work on numbers marks the beginning of theoretical physics—he linked theory or philosophy with the experiment especially in the study of harmony. The continuation of this work was effectually stultified however by the influence of the schools of Plato and Aristotle. The teleological approach of Aristotle persisted into the Middle Ages. Biology is the only field in which the value of his work persists.
Professor Vick drew attention to the remarkable accuracy of the Greeks in their astronomical observations—as compared with the inaccuracy of their observation of earthly phenomena—perhaps because the heavens captured their imagination.
After Aristotle there was merely a barren bookishness till the 16th and 17th centuries when the first real advance came.
Professor Vick now turned to the "Atomic Theory." The Milesians had thought about a division of things into atoms and Democritus wrote about it, likening the different atoms to the letters of the alphabet so that just as different combinations of letters from different words, so different combinations of atoms form different substances.
There was much imaginative thought in Lucretius, who built nne of the very best bridges between the sciences and the arts. He refers to the concept of an atom as demonstrated, for example, by the action of the wind, which must therefore contain bodies. I I is speculation, however, is based on observation quite uncontrolled by the characteristically modern scientific observation and deduction.
Newton had to break away from more speculation as well as from Aristotelian • terminology, e.g. in the Aristotelian theory of the behaviour of projectiles. The force of friction was not realised till the time of Newton and Galileo. Accurate experiment was of course very difficult in the Middle Ages. Newton revolutionised science by his use of models, abstraction and the calculus. Returning to the Atomic Theory again Professor Vick explained how Newton mingled science with theology in his theory that matter is composed of solid, massy, impenetrable particles created by God. Newton's concept of the atom held the field until 1897 when J. J. Thomson revolutionised scientific thought by his experiments with the cathode ray tube and his theoretical concept of electrons as the universal constituents of matter. Then in 1911 followed Rutherford, whose simple experiment following upon a leap of the imagination ushered in nuclear physics.
Professor Vick concluded his talk by issuing a challenge to Classicists to help bridge the gap between Science and Classics. There were many questions down the ages which remained unanswered and which deserved fuller investigation.
Meet the Atoms by O. R. Frisch (Sigma Books 1947)
History and Philosophy of Science by H. Dingle (Universitie Quarterly Volume, 6th August, 1942).
Thoughts on the Evolution of a Scientific Problem (School Science Review—Volume 35) June, 1954.
The Origins of Modern Science by H. Butterfield (Bell, 1949).
Scientific Investigation as an Art by W. I. B. Beveridge.
BY J. M. T. CHARLTON
AFTER having experienced at first hand during the previous few days the practical conditions of a student's life at Keele, the members of the Summer School took an almost person, interest when Professor Charlton, Professor of Classics in 64. University College of North Staffordshire, in his address delivered to us on 31st August, declared that he would confine his "random reflections on end-
He first told us that the quality of his Classics students, of whom there were on average three a year reading for Greek Honours, was as good as that at Reading or Bristol Universities, the majority of those now in residence being "near misses" from Cambridge. Broadly speaking, they consisted of two types, boys from schools with a strong classical tradition—obviously their "bottom half"—and the "top half" of other schools without a classical tradition, who were, on the whole, the abler group of the two.
For the past ten years, the Classics Department at Keele had been concerned with presenting the culture and problems of the Ancient World not only to these classicists, but also to all their first-
In view of the criticism so frequently levelled against the teaching of Classics, brought to the notice of the public particularly this year as a result of the recent debates at Oxford and Cambridge, it was vitally important to draw up a syllabus showing that its study had relevance and significant to the Twentieth Century. In order to "trigger off" his students' appreciation, Professor Charlton based his course of Latin literature on the Romans' developing political ideology. To sharpen the contrast between good and bad government, he read with them a book of the Verrine Orations immediately prior to Cicero's Republic, with its opportunity for discussion on the distinction between right and wrong, "fides," and the sanctity of treaties. They then considered in turn the developing attitude the Principate evident in the poetry of Virgil and Horace, the moral and patriotic aims of Livy, selected passages from Seneca, and some of Pliny's correspondence, such as his letter to the governor of Greece, 8.24.
Furthermore, as Hugh Last pointed out in his Presidential Address to the Classical Association ten years ago, if the differences between the culture of West and East were considered, and the reading matter of schools and universities at the time of the Renaissance were studied by our present undergraduates, the distinction between the countries behind the Iron Curtain and the others would be much more apparent—thus producing a contemporary appeal and suggesting more convincingly the immediacy of the study of Classics to the youth of today. In short, the syllabus must be properly balanced, due attention being paid to all the different branches of the subject—language, literature, philosophy, archaeology—as each made its distinct contribution to the study of the subject as a whole.
At this point, Professor Charlton commented on the teaching of Classics by the direct, or oral method. He admitted that, while sceptical of its value, he had not himself had sufficient experience of students taught in this way to pass judgment on it, and agreed that the success or failure of any method obviously depended on the ability and personality of both teacher and taught.
In summing up, he repeated that what he was in fact looking for in freshers was sounder grammar, more imagination coupled with a keener desire to learn, and greater width of background reading: On this past point, he blamed the examining boards for their bad selection of prescribed texts, and for setting essay questions whip it were frequently too narrow in scope. He found that in some school,, whole forms memorized a bad translation, whereas the pupil,,.' own composition was of a very poor standard.
When questioned on the matter of prescribed texts for examinations, Professor Charlton thought that these should be retained, but that questions on context and syntax should be abolished because they were tackled with almost complete lack of under standing by most students ; essay subjects should be broadened, and the amount of continuous Latin prose writing reduced. In their second year at Keele, when the Classics students started their Honours course, they did prose composition every week, but in their third and fourth years, it had its place on the timetable only in alternate weeks with unseen translation. Indeed, composition at this stage had been dropped altogether for a time, but was reintroduced when it was realized what a vital part it had to play in a Classical degree course. Great interest was shown by the members of the Summer School in the contents of the Foundation Year General Course, and we were given further details of the syllabus. To all first year students thirty lectures were delivered on the Ancient World to acquaint them with the thought and literature of Greece and Rome from the Minoan civilization in Crete to the break-
Finally, on being asked how classicists compared in ability with students reading other subjects, Professor Charlton said that they had no noticeable superiority, except perhaps that in their 1st year they tended to choose to study Maths., Physics or Chemistry rather than the less exacting sciences. For this lecture, both so informative and so frankly expressed, we owe Professor Charlton a debt of gratitude. It provoked, as it was bound to do, much discussion on the content of different syllabuses, and methods of presentation. We came away determined o reconsider in the light of what had been said our own contribution o the spread of Classical learning.
BY J. M. TODD
On Tuesday, the first of September, Mr. Todd, Headmaster of Newcastle-
The lecture was illustrated by select readings from "Voices from, the Past," a collection of translations from the classics brought together by Mr. Todd and his wife. We were all enchanted by a modern version of a chorus from Iphigenia in Aulis. B.C. 11.
BY F. R. DALE
It is always a pleasure to listen to Mr. Dale's sensitive reading (d poetry and, although this year he did not lead us to the height of Parnassus, he did us a great service by reminding us how much delight and wisdom was to be gathered on the lower slope.". He made no exaggerated claims but by skilful comment, apt comparison and careful selection he showed us what a master Juvenal is in his limited field, how he paints his own age in vivid colours and yet lays bare for his own age and many others the roots of vice, ignorance, boredom and frustration. Mr. Sharwood Smitlh thanked Mr. Dale for his pauses. Few speakers dare to pause for long, yet stillness is so essential to the appreciation of art, which must be felt as well as heard and seen. We thank Mr. Dale for helping us to join for a while that great company who have followed Juvenal into exile in Egypt and returned with him to a happier Rome, recovering in some degree from its sickness. Why did they and we enjoy the journey so much, feel cleansed and exhilarated by all that dirt and misery ? The answer cannot be given adequately in plain prose for it is part of the artist's mystery, part of his secret strength.
THERE were three of these ; two concerned with Latin Prose Composition conducted (if that is the word) by Messrs. Melluish and Boyd. There were mild outbreaks of mutiny at times when the "conductor" insisted too arrogantly on his own phrase taking precedence over the group's suggestions.
The third was in Latin Verse Composition under Mr. Wilmot—a well-
Argellus, quem multa conatum antea omnes vituperabant omnes irridebant, tum demum felicissime res gerere coepit : sed illud et maximum erravit quod nomen imperatoris sine imperio non constanter repudiavit qui si privatam in otio vitam egisset, paucis post annis cum honore in rempublicam revocatus, inter nobiles principi adstantes, legibus obtemperanti, haudquaquam obscurus exstitisset. Si autem suo ipsius arbitrio in hoc bello gerendo usus esset, neque ullos secum adduxisset nisi qui dicto audituri semper essent, aliquid magni fortasse effecisset. duci enim defuit non virtus, non vigor animi, non peritia artis militaris, sed tantum auctoritas.
II When you are old and gray and full of sleep,
And nodding by the fire, take down this book,
And slowly read, and dream of the soft look
Your eyes had once, and of their shadows deep
How many loved your moments of glad grace,
And loved your beauty with love false or true ;
But one man loved the pilgrim soul in you
And loved the sorrows of your changing face
And bending down beside the glowing
bars Murmur, a little sadly, how love fled
And paced upon the mountains overhead,
And hid his face amid a crowd of stars.
Uxor, anus fies, cana sopita senecta,
Unde foco nutans manibus mea carmina promes
Lenta legens olim finges, quam lenia somno
Lumina claruerint penitus fluitantibus umbris,
Gratus quisque tuas quotus affectaverit horas,
Seu vero venerem seu falso gestiit igni.
Ingenium sed enim peregrinum solus amabam,
Et varias voltus serumnas unicus arsi.
Desuper et pendens flammis splendentibus usta
Murmure quam minimo querere, ut iam fugerit ardor,
Montibus et vagus aeriis sublime Cupido
Sideribus lateat maerore frequentibus exsul.
THE Annual General Meeting of the Association was held on Monday, August 31st, 1959, during the course of the Summer School, with the President, Mr. A. R. Munday, in the Chair. The Minutes of the 1958 Annual General Meeting were duly approved and, there being no matters arising from them, the meeting quickly passed on to the next item on the agenda, correspondence, which brought us good wishes from Professor Haarhoff and Mrs. Newey.
Then followed the elections, and among the new officers we welcomed Mr. T. W. Melluish as our President and added Mrs. J. W. Newey to the number of Vice-
Next came the Treasurer's report for 1958. The year had ended with a profit of £47, which was due for the most part to the success of the Weekend Course and Summer School. On the Committee's instructions additional units of National Savings Certificates had been purchased from this profit, so that there was now a substantial reserve fund available. This was just as well, said Mr. Rees, effectively suppressing any feelings of complacency we may have had, since the present Summer School was not likely to bring any financial gain to the Association. This report was accepted and thanks were expressed both to Mr. Rees and to Mr. J. F. Gravett, the Hon. Auditor.
We passed to a discussion of the work of the Summer School. Very few suggestions were forthcoming, which fact we hope indicated moral satisfaction with the programme.
From 1959 to 1960. The Summer School was to be held at St. Margaret's School, Yeaton Peverey, near Shrewsbury, from July Pith to August 4th, and the Weekend Course on March 4th and 5th At Woodberry Down School, London. 1960 swiftly gave place to 1901, and various suggestions were made for a suitable venue for that year's Summer School.
"Latin Teaching" was next reported upon. The printing dispute had unfortunately held up the publication of the June issue, but it was hoped that this would appear soon after the beginning of the Autumn Term. We learned that the Advertising Manager had now resigned and the Editor hoped to receive an offer to take over this work.
Two requests were made in the Assistant Secretary's report which followed—for volunteers to help in the task of addressing envelopes, and for prompt notification of changes of address. The news that the missing Greek coins had at last been found was for many of us the "highlight" of the report of the Secretary of the Archaeological Aids Committee. These had now been revalued and reinsured accordingly.
Cordial thanks were then expressed to the domestic staff by Mrs. Archer and to the teaching staff by Mr. Sharwood Smith. At the close of the meeting a warm tribute, which will be echoed by all members, was paid to the retiring President, Mr. A. R. Munday, for his valuable and unsparing services to the Association during his term of office.
0FFICIUM est mihi supremum, o Arelates, quippe qui director sirr huius ludi aestivi, tricensimi sexti societatis nostrae hoc ultimo—vel potius paenultimo—die, in hoc congressu ultimo Arelatium brevem orationem valedictoriam—heu, triste ministerium !—vobis habere.
E diversis enim partibus huius insulae profecti nos ad haii, Academiam, nomine Carinam, eo consilio convenimus ut linguartifil nostrarum nostrum ipsorum amorem augeamus, mentem animumq i ii -
Manifestum est, commilitones, mea quidem sententia, nos bo( perbreve spatium temporis bene ac feliciter egisse. Quis enim negarc potest nos omnes maxime esse laetatos videntes audientesquc Doctorem Laurium nostrum viginti unum pueros docentem et amore linguae Latinae—suique, ut opinor—afficere conantem ? Et praeterea non solum pueros illos docuit vel docere temptavit sed etiam nos quoque tribus orationibus suis sapientia facetiisque plenis docuit atque valde oblectavit. Dalius ille, "cui nova canities, cui prima et recta senectus" est, quater nobis de saturis Iuvenalis tanta arte, tanto lepore, tanta sapientia disseruit ut non solum nos omnes, ut mihi videtur, poetam illum identidem legere velimus sed etiam silentia eius nobis eloquentia esse videantur. Si quis vestrum lepore sapientiaque eius fascinatus plures orationes illiusmodi audire vult, curet ut eum. 9v -
Multos autem alios oratores audivimus omnesque varias ob causas nos delectaverunt. Professoribus, doctoribus, magistris de scientia, de linguis antiquis discipulisque nostrae aetatis adultis, de interpretatione linguarum ~carminibusque Anglice reddendis loquentibus aures diligenter dedimus. Quibus factis auditisque multas picturas praeclarissimas, coloribus miris depictas et callidissime in vitrum relatas et miro quodam modo in tabulam albam—male olentem scilicet—proiectas amplificatasque multo cum gaudio multaque voluptate spectavimus.
praeterea carmina Burana musica arte Germani cuiusdam Burninata et nobis discis revolventibus a Monte illo oblata non sine jaudio fructuque auribus percepimus.
Brevi autem, commilitones, hac oratione terminata fabulam quandam scaenicam a Plauto illo scriptam, a Finito illo finitam, contractam, productam. audiemus.
Haud multos abhinc dies vasa atque fictilia, nova facienda mirati spectavimus Devamque alio die ivimus ubi vasa antiqua facta, recta, refecta non sine admiratione vidimus. Postea hoc ipso die de re maximi momenti inter nos disputavimus utrum Romani sapentius quam nos suffragia mulieribus negavissent necne et, ut semper—heu !—voces mulierum virum suffragiis praevaluerunt. 0 tempora ! o mores ! o mulieres !
Ne plura dicam, circuli circumierunt, lectores legerunt, scriptores prosas scripserunt, poetae poemata—vaccis adiuvantibus !— composuerunt, saltatores saltaverunt, immo vero etiam hac ipsa nocte iterum saltabunt. Nonnulli etiam nonnullaeque, animi fortissimi, ut ita dicam, in aqua lacus limo harundinibusque commixta nataverunt.
Quidquid agunt homines, ut poeta noster dixit, gaudia, discursus, iocos felicissime egimus et haec omnia. sub Iove sereno in hac nova Academia ubi, ut ex titulis nonnullis compertum habemus, pueri lentissimi sunt sed puellae—a 1—celerrimae esse videntur. Titulos Romanis litteris inscriptos, SPQR, desideravimus, sed titulos ubique impositos litterisque barbaricis inscriptos vidimus, NCB. His quidem temporibus, o Arelates, difficilius in dies fit, ut opinor, humanitatem nobis a Romanis Graecisque per saecula multa traditam servare et posteritati deinceps tradere. Necesse est ergo ut uno quoque anno doctores linguarum nostrarum ad ludum aestivum huiusmodi conveniant. Spero igitur vos omnes ad labores vestros mox redituros esse novo quodam vigore animi et amore nostrae disciplinae artiumque redintegrato imbutos quod huic interfueritis ludo aestivo. Itaque nunc milli invito necesse est iam tandem usque in proximum annum. dicere "Valete"