for a Summer School, and our stay at Headington School fulfilled most expectations. Normal boarding-
Apart from the main body of the daily programme, commented on in subsequent pages, there were several very pleasant out-
Latin, Lovely Latin O
We came with Mr. Munday O!
He taught us something we did not know,
Something we did not want to know
Latin, Lovely Latin O!
There were also on that memorable evening Chanties sung communally ; a Play (Androclus et Leo) by the boys of the Tudor Grange Grammar School, Solihull (who also had provided a Demonstration Class as well as the Skiffle Group) a Ballad, " 753 and all that " ; a Quartet, " Contendimus Romani” and our own A.R.L.T. song led with gusto by Mr. Dunn.
Among our number we were glad to have two visiting classical teachers from Germany, not forgetting their tape-
Miss M. G. Drury gave a series of five demonstration lessons, with a class of girls from a local school. These girls were at first extremely shy and inarticulate—a serious draw back when teaching by oral methods.
Miss Drury began with the present tense of the verb series, gradually building up the complete verb "drill." At first the girls had great difficulty in remembering and pronouncing the four words “surgo," " ambulo," " revenio " and " sedeo," in spite of the clarity of Miss Drury's enunciation. Once this hurdle was surmounted, the rest of the tense was dealt with more easily. The verbs were then tabulated on the blackboard and the class, helped Miss Drury's gestures, were able to give the meaning of the different endings.
The second lesson began with oral revision of the four verbs and at this point the imperative was added. Its meaning was quickly grasped and the new form was practised by having a pupil acting as. ' Magistra," much to the delight of the class. Nouns were introduced by means of an illustrated alphabet. This afforded an opportunity for the introduction of the questions " quid est ? " and " quid facit ? " and for further use of the imperative. There was laughter amongst the audience at the girls' shy response to the command " rudite ! " The verb drill was completed by the addition of " facio." Then first and second declension nouns were used with " hic " " haec '' " hoc " and " ille," " illa, " " illud." The different endings were written out on the blackboard and, after some prompting from Miss Drury, the girls successfully identified the different genders. The accusative and ablative cases were brought in by adding prepositional phrases to the verb drill. Next we heard an amusing; "fabula " about Crassus (abominandissimus, sceleratissimus, etc.), with illustrations on the blackboard, which the girls seemed to enjoy, though their response to the questions was rather hesitant.
After demonstration of the use of the accusative of the Direct Object and the ablative of the instrument, members of the class, noticed that these were not new endings but that they were used with a different meaning. The demonstrations concluded will another fabula, telling of Crassus' sad end after eating " decem ova." This was enjoyed by class and audience alike. In her introductory remarks, Miss Drury had explained that she intended to cover much more ground in these five lessons than she would normally attempt to cover with a class of beginners. One could not help feeling that these girls would have been happier had the pace been slower. Nevertheless we were all very highly impressed by Miss Drury's patience and skill in instilling confidence and interest into her class.
WITHIN the compass of five lessons with a class of twelve boys from Tudor Grange School, Mr. Munday was able to illustrate the very wide scope which the Direct Method affords in the second year of Latin.
From the first lesson, devoted mainly to revision based on Hic verb-
It was inspiring to see how the verb series could be adapted to introduce the more difficult tenses, and how the close association between speaking and acting stimulated the boys and helped in their memory. This was everywhere apparent, from the drawing of a long-
At the same time it was essential that once a new usage had been introduced and practised, it must be explained fully in English-
Interest and a high degree of concentration were maintained throughout—not without sundry touches of humour—showing us how fruitful this method can be in the hands of a skilful and energetic teacher. To follow the course of these lessons was a valuable experience for all, and one for which we are most grateful both to Mr. Munday and to the boys.
THE circuli and kuklos had their traditional place in the programme of the Summer School, and, as at Durham two years ago, they catered for members with differing experience of the oral method. These groups, run on very informal lines, give important practice in the speaking of Latin, and provide a useful demonstration of the value oral work may have in teaching.
Mr. Diamond and Mr. Gravett led groups whose conversation was based on passages from Pseudolus Noster and Paginae Primae respectively, and was of a standard which might be aimed at in the first two or three years of Latin. Mr. Dunn gave practice in the use of the verb series to introduce new grammar, and in the basic drills. For the more experienced and confident, Mr. Wilmot and Mr. Richards conducted conversation of a more erudite nature, based on writings of Cicero and Virgil. Those who try to do this kind of work with Sixth Forms found this practice most helpful, although the Virgil group tended at times to develop into a Reading Class, engaging in discussion of detailed points of pronunciation and accent.
In the less advanced groups, many who were new to the method, were at first somewhat disconcerted by their own inability to think out a quick, grammatically correct answer to a simple question. But after a few days, there was a marked increase of fluency, and soon we heard, in (almost) faultless Latin, the usual ingenious definitions, and discussions upon methods of making cheese, stringing bows, etc. ; whilst " aliter Latine " called forth prompt response. The Greek kuklos led by Mr. Eagling, provided welcome practice to some who have less opportunity than they would wish of keeping up their Greek, and to others called upon to teach the language after a long lapse.
In general, members felt that each circulus had its value, and some found it difficult to make a choice. One solution was to sample two, on different days ; another, to resolve to come again next year.
INTO three invigorating lectures, Dr. Loehry packed a wealth of information and advice upon the application of the oral method . With characteristic energy and earnestness, he gave an expert exposition of the principles of the method, showing it to be built upon sound educational dicta : build the unknown upon the known, introduce only one difficultly at a time ; give the pupil absolute trust and confidence in his teacher, and so on.
The greater part of his time, however, he devoted to an outlining of the syllabus which he and his colleagues follow for the first two or three years, and to methods of introducing new constructions. As he demonstrated for us his first lesson on the Ablative Absolute, or his introduction of Indirect Statement, we could glimpse the fascination his methods and personality must exercise on his classes, and perhaps envy his acting ability and his ingenuity. His fairy story designed to explain the passive was hailed as a stroke of genius, and hastily inscribed in numerous notebooks. From time to time Dr. Loehry gave us most valuable practical hints, or " tricks of the trade." The technique of " planting " in advance of requirements was explained : Make the class familiar with Quid accidit some time before introducing the passive ; test the perfect and future tenses at the beginning of the lesson in which the future-
The lecturer was not allowed to go unchallenged, and his invitation -
Without suggesting that these lectures brought about a wholesale conversion to the oral method in its entirety, I feel sure that most members of the Summer School have returned to school wondering if their own lessons may perhaps become more effective and certainly more enjoyable, by the adoption of some of Dr. Loehry's methods and an infusion of his energy and conviction.
No Summer School is complete without its lecture on the correct pronunciation of Latin, and this year at Oxford we again enjoyed the privilege of having Miss Woodward to address us on this subject. She reminded us of the development of marked national peculiarities in the speaking of Latin, instancing the story told by Erasmus about the Frenchman who, upon an international occasion, orationem ab Italo quopiam, ut arbitrar, compositam, nec male Latinam, adeo Gallice pronuntiavit ut ab Italis aliquot eruditis qui tam aderant Gallice non Latine dicere credebant.
However, enough is known to-
F. W. WESTAWAY : Quantity and Accent in the Pronunciation of Latin (C U.P. 1913),
ARNOLD AND CONWAY: The Restored Pronunciation of Greek and Latin (C.U.P. 1921),
E. H. STURTEVANT : The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin (Linguistic Society of America 1940),
and still more recently, a useful Appendix on Pronunciation in a report on The Teaching of Classics and a new publication on " The Latin Language " by Professor L. R. Palmer. One might also mention the very popular A.R.L.T. pamphlet prepared by Mr. Dale.
Then with precision and quiet humour Miss Woodward demonstrated the sounds of vowels, diphthongs and consonants. Silently we shaped our mouths to form the bilabial fricative u, the dental d, the " trilled tongue tip " r (named Caning Lingua—which was not, as we feared at first, a just description of much Summer School conversation). Finally came the important questions on Hidden Quantity and Accent. During the remainder of the Summer School, the Reading Classes, one of which Miss Woodward was kind enough to conduct herself, gave us an opportunity to practise and to check our understanding of what she had told us. We were left with the conviction that the pursuit of a correct pronunciation was not a merely academic exercise, but a way of rediscovering the music of Roman poetry and rhetoric.
Mr. Dale led this small circle in reading Iliad, books XXIII and XXIV. Both books were completed except for a few lines. Mr. Dale concentrated on (1) The tonic accent; (2) pronunciation ; (3) Dramatic rendering.
The tonic accent caused some trouble to those unused to it, and the circle often lapsed into heavily stressing the metrical ictus.
Mr. Dale's dramatic rendering was inimitable and most enjoyable.
MR. Boyd's lectures were somewhat of an innovation following a request for a more elementary stage of Latin prose compostition than that so well provided by Mr. Dunn -
Next Mr. Boyd illustrated his method of strengthening and expanding vocabulary and illustrating constructions by duplicated sheets of sentences. He agreed that in theory, vocabulary phrases etc., should be compiled from their own reading and recorded in the pupils' own note books, but in practice how much has been read of real Latin Prose by " 0 " level—thirty chapters of Caesar ? One idea of the sentences was to illustrate alternatives (aliter Latine !) and suggest discrimination while illustrating Latin idiom, e.g., abstract v. concrete. He had read no poetry—, nullum poetam legerat. Similarly the use of the present participle was demonstrated by Mihi (but not ei) roganti respondit.
The next stage was the use of Longae Sententiae (shades of A. Munday). English examples were provided and the class iinvited to makes " howlers." Again method in fashioning a period was patent, e.g., the principle Quid ultimum fecit ? Nash Williams, uses similar methods in his Introduction to Continuous Latin prose and it is now realised that technique is needed in this as in other aspects of Latin teaching.
Finally we reached the stage of Prose Composition and a version was attempted by the class under Mr. Boyd's direction. The aim was to produce a straightforward version of an historical piece withlod undue finesse (e.g., attention to clausula or other rhythm) as the idea was to keep our pupils on firm ground and foster their confidence. Mr. Boyd suggested fair copies should be memorised. This is. necessarily a very inadequate appreciation of the fine work done by Mr. Boyd and enlivened (in spite of a bad cold and our frigid room) by a dry humour all his own.
Mr. Wilmot’s Latin Prose Composition in " the Sixth " is always an experience : to the newcomer, a plunge into cold water, breathtaking, before it exhilarates. So it had been with Mr. Melluish, and so it was with Mr. Wilmot. Our first attempt is History, picturesque and exciting—shall it be Caesar ?—Livy, rather. What Ancient Roman shone in defeat ? And we plunge straight in. How shall we say " unnerved " ? " fraternise " ? Slowly come the contributions at first, but the board fills, merits are weighed, rapidly decided ; there is a clean sweep ; sentences take shape. The next, a specimen of Churchill's rhetoric, surely calls for Cicero, and, of course, Catiline—but the sphere would be too confined—gently we are headed towards Mithridates. Now, suggestions come more quickly. Some enthusiasts would delay over niceties of style, but " Get down the main sense as quickly as possible, then revise, or it will defeat you," we are warned. And indeed, we finished on clausulae. And so comes the end. Precious " fair copies " are there to remind us of a pleasant language Feast.
F. R. Dale delivered four lectures on Lucretius, Book III. For the most part Lucretius was allowed speak for himself, either impressively read or even more impressively translated by Mr. Dale, and comment was kept to a minimum. There was, nevertheless, much warm discussion of the immortality of the soul in common rooms and dormitories.
The talks on literary themes are the most pleasant features of the Summer Schools, and the hope was expressed by many that they will occupy an even more important place in the programme in future years.
ON the Friday evening we were honoured by a visit from Sir Richard Livingstone who gave us " Some Thoughts on Latin in Schools." He said at the outset that as people engaged in the actual work of teaching we might be tempted to greet these thoughts with the remark " We've heard it all before," " It's not practicable " or " It's already being done." He admitted that some ought not to learn Latin ; but those who do, he said, as well as their teachers, should have a clear idea of what they are doing and why.
Among his reasons " why " Sir Richard gave pride of place to the benefits which a study of Latin confers on the pupil's knowledge of English. Without it there is no " depth " in the meaniing of your English. Our Anglo-
It is the Latin derivatives which cause difficulty. Pairs of words may be confused : " deprecate, depreciate ; casual , causal ; etc." Some strange expressions appear when the Latin words are ignored. " They greatly minimise the importance." " It was a very unique occasion." " Forty per cent of the regiment were, decimated." " He proved that he was an alibi." In writing you aim to clothe your meaning with words that fit it exactly. In playing a musical instrument we want to hit all the right notes. The English language is an instrument which we all have to play. " It'll do -
Language is for use, but also for enjoyment. Words, like human beings, move from their old homes, but carry with them the mark of those old homes. We like them better and understand them better, if we know something of their origins. They should not be mere counters. " Oscillate " and liberal education " have more in them than their " plain meaning and " Man without intelligence is not social but gregarious " conveys probably a clearer meaning, certainly more pleasure, to one who knows Latin.
Latin can be a subject that makes one think, even when we simply recognise the Latin words behind for instance " culture " or " cardinal virtue " ; but especially in translation into and out of Latin we are given a chance to think which modern languages cannot provide, as too often there is a word-
At this point Sir Richard went on to compare various versions, Macnaghten, Montagu Butler and Conington—of " Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus tam cari capitis ? " " Why blush . . . ? " It is most valuable to know what the special powers of one particular language are and what characterictics give it those powers. Sir Richard quoted Heine's description of Latin, and had already intrigued us by writing on the blackboard in addition to " Virtutem Videant, in tabescantque relicta " INVICTIS VICTI VICTVRI.
This was recognised by no one, I believe, in the audience and it was at this point that we learnt that it was a dedicatory inscription Composed by Wilamowitz after the Great War.
Finally we were given some thoughts on Latin as literature. A striking line or phrase should be written on the board each day and could lead into what is to follow. In Caesar the parts concerned with Gregoria and Alesia and Quintus Cicero should be read. In Virgil the fifth book should not be read ; and further—a bitter pill for some of us who had heard Mr. Dale a couple of hours earlier describe Ovid as " no poet ! "—no Ovid.
ONCE again we have had the privilege of a thought-
As an educationalist, Mrs. Pym herself never felt able to prefer one subject to the detriment of another. In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, the top of the school led straight to the University, and so there was continuity. Nowadays the Universitites impose demands on the schools and fragmentation results therefrom. The sixth form should be the place where for the first time you work on your own and discover values for yourself, but owing to the increasing demands for specialists, school subjects have become professionalized. There is no time for the learning by heart which was a possession for all time. If you go, to the University and are good, you research, you do not spread your enthusiasm. This lays a special responsibility on the teacher to give a broad interpretation—What is of such value in classics that you must pass it on ? The Rev. F. Temple, Headmaster of Rugby, had said that the purpose of knowledge was the discovery of the thoughts, feelings and motives of fellow-
THE final lecture of the 1957 Summer School at Oxford was given by Mr. Peckett on " Translation." In introducing the speaker, the Director promised that we should enjoy a stimulating and provocative talk. His promise was well and very fulfilled. And truly Mr Peckett began by pointing out the difficulties facing a translator, and very aptly illustrated this point by a provocative quotation wherein translations are likened to women—either beautiful or faithful, seldom both. He then elaborated this theme of beauty and fidelity in terms of the art and craft of the translator.
The art of the translator lies in his ability to remould faithfully, without destroying the spirit of the original, yet at the same time bringing some new quality sufficiently powerful to make as much an effect on the mind of the modern reader as did the original on the minds of the Greeks and Romans. Above all, he must do no violation to the English language in the process.
Next came a consideration of the nature of poetry and the craft of translating it. Poetry is the putting into words of some thrilling experience, thus producing an association of ideas with reality, and in turn, ideas with more ideas. Language is the symbol and it is in the interpretation of the metaphors and adjectives especially, that the translator meets his greatest challenge, for therein lies the key to the poet's vision. Mr. Peckett concluded by saying that every age should have the great poets translated afresh, and in a style to suit itself—it is an admirable way of upholding the basis of its civilization.
THE Annual General Meeting of the Association followed its usual pattern, being longer perhaps than some hoped and shorter than some had feared. The Hon Secretary read the Minutes, which were duly approved and signed. As part of the " matters arising " the President explained the reasons for the decision not to hold a Summer School in 1956 following upon the withdrawal of the Leys School from its original agreement to accept us. Correspondence brought us the good wishes of Mr. Percival and news of Miss Moor. From letters we passed to elections, the results of which are to be found elsewhere in this magazine.
The next item was a change in the Constitution. This, a small matter of " sordid finance," was speedily accepted by the meeting. Duly printed as a proposal in the last issue of LATIN TEACHING, it will be found incorporated in the full Constitution printed in this number.
Hard on the heels of the financial amendment to the Constitution came the Treausrer's report, which suggested that, on the whole, we were not doing too badly. With the Treasurer's accounts accepted, a vote of thanks to the Hon. Treasurer brought economic matters to a close.
There followed a full discussion of the Summer School 1957, and various suggestions were made. Mr. Dale put the view that Reading classes were so important that they should not clash with anything else. Mr. Richards felt that the Verse book for Advanced Reading class should be taken by an experienced person, if at all. As this was a new experiment this year the thought did arise that only Mr. Richards had the necessary qualifications ! Once again the claims of Greek in the Summer School were debated. One felt a trifle sorry foi the poor Director who had to try to satisfy everyone. Finally, to pile Ossa on Pelion or vice versa, someone proposed that there should be Elementary Greek Prose as well as Advanced. 0 miserum Director ero!
Nulla mora. Following on this discussion came the news that next year's Summer School was to be at St. Matthias College Fishponds, Bristol, from Thursday, August 28th to Thursday September 4th. Various proposals were brought forward for the renewal of the S.S. 1959 and York prevailed. The Week-
The present and ex-
Miss Beachcroft gave us a full report on the achievements of the A.A.C. Committee, not the least of which seemed to be a handsome donation from the G.P.O. !
Finally, very cordial thanks were expressed to the Director and Teaching Staff by Dr. Heinz from Germany and to the Matrons and Domestic Staff by Mr. Connell from nearer home.
At this time one was conscious that the thoughts of the meeting were, partly at any rate, fixed on teacups and the President, with uncanny prescience of the advancing trolley, at once declared the meeting closed.
ORATIO VALEDICTORIA (some issues of ocr remain here)
MULTA sunt officia, o Arelates, Directoris ludi aestivi, alia facilia, difficilia alia, omnia tarnen, ut mihi videtur, iucunda. Inter quae officium est mihi, ut qui Director Vinster sim huius ludi aestivi, tricensimi quarti societatis nostrae, anc brevem, vel potius perbrevem, orationem valedictoriam vobis habere. Constat inter omnes, mea quidem sententia, hunc ludum aestivum, si quis alius, bene ac feliciter nobis, successisse. Quisnam enim dubitare potest quin vos omnes, sicut ego, laetati sitis videntes audientesque Margaritan nostram undeviginti eius puellas docentem ? Suave mari magno turbantibus aequora ventis e terra magnum alterius spectare laborem. Ut praeterea multo cum gaudio multaque cum voluptate oratores nostros orationes habentes audivimus. Silvia nostra de rebus disseruit difficillimis et labyrinthum vocalium consonantiumque paene inexplicabilem plane explicavit. Dalius ille de Lucretio quater nobis disseruit multis luminibus ingenii, multa tamen arte et lepore, adeo ut omnes, si licuisset, non quattuor sed decem vel viginti orationes eius audire maluissemus. Curate igitur, commilitones, ut cum audiatis interdum orationem habentem ??!? ut ita dicam, ???. Longum est omnia quae fecimus vobis commemorare. Quid de sapientia Equitis illius Ricardi multos per annos atillata ? Quid de oratione illius Albi multis picturis, machinis multis illuminata ? Quid de quaestione illa " Cur," quam rogavit Dora nostra, cuique tam facunde respondit ? Quid de tribus orationibus Doctoris nostri Laurii multa sapientia referta multaque instructione ad res nostras aptissima ? Quid de Pico illo utriusque linguae sermones perbene docto ? Ne plura dicam, circuli circumibant lectores legebant, scriptores prosas scribebant, saltatores saltabant, cantores cantabant, actores fabulas agebant. Quidquid agunt homines, gaudia, discursus, iocos, felicissime egimus et haec omnia in hac tam pulchra tamque vetusta urbe. Dulce et decorum east nobis uno quoque anno ludum aestivum huiusmodi habere. His quidem temporibus difficillimum est linguam Latinam Graecamque pueros puellasque docere et artes humaniores inter bella rumoresque belli conservare, et inter minas coepi defendere quibus nihil est curae pulchritudini, humanitati, ?!spiritus studere. Solitudinem faciunt, meliorem se reddere ?! putant. Spero vos omnes ad labores vestros mox redituros ?! animum mentemque et spiritum refectos quod huic interfu? ludo aestivo. Invito tamen mihi necesse est iam tandem his patri verbis usque ad Stagna Piscium vobis dicere " Valete."
THE A.R.L.T. in conjunction with the Classical Association will hold a Week-
There will be lectures and demonstrations of Direct Method and of other teaching methods. Particulars will be announced later. Please note the dates.