for holding a Summer School in a country mansion somewhat remote from the attractions of a town. The very remoteness helps to bind the members of the course into a closer community, and if, as at Yeaton Peverey, a few miles from Shrewsbury, the house itself is set in a beautiful park and gardens, then, somehow or other, there steals over the course an atmosphere which is congenial to both work and fellowship. This is perhaps why the fifty or so people who attended the Association's Thirty-
These included the acting of an original Greek play written by a member of the " Attic " at this school. Viriconium and Chester were within easy reach. The lecturers, whose work we are privileged to print in future issues, were remarkably effective. Mr. Munday showed a film made by himself, and surprisingly good for an. amateur, of his visit to Italy. The evenings' entertainments were very refreshing, and that presented on the last evening was most wittily performed. The domestic staff were most pleasant and helpful, and the inner man was almost overnourished. The weather, too, for this unbalanced year, was remarkably fine.
Two things perhaps were lacking. One was a formal lecture on pronunciation, which seemed to be needed more at this course than at its immediate predecessors, since several of the members were all at sea, even when quantities were not hidden. The other thing that was missing, as expressed elsewhere in this number by a newcomer to the work of the Association, was a lecture or discussion on the reason for teaching the Classics. Those who attend the Summer Schools regularly are apt to take both these things for granted. It certainly looks as if a new generation is coming which does not. Future directors, might like to do something about it.
Apart from the actual programme of the course, as reported in full below, it was the congenial atmosphere of the place and the occasion which made members feel that the course was so much worth while, and express the wish to return again soon.
THE demonstration of the very first steps in the teaching of Latin by the Direct Method has become an almost indispensable part of a Summer School. To the newcomer it is a revelation of fresh and exciting classroom possibilities, whilst even the old hand finds that there are new tricks still to be learnt. This was certainly true this year of Mr. N. J. E. Dunn's six demonstration lessons with a class of thirteen boys from the Priory School.
In the very first lesson we were able to see three of the fundamental processes at work : the Magister spoke and,acted the verb series surgo-
The new work in the fourth lesson was the use of prepositions With singular nouns. They were introduced through the now-
The notable features in the fifth lesson were the Accusative of the Direct Object and the telling of the first Fabula. Perseverance with a discipulus and a baculum soon made it apparent to the boys that in such circumstances one person does an action and the other has it done to him. So the memorable terms EDUZIT and E-
The last lesson dealt with the plurals of the nouns in the three cases already used, and ended with the untimely fate of Marcus, who was over fond of Ova. By this time we were so carried along by Mr. Dunn's verve and enthusiasm that only Messrs. Lewis and Short stirred uneasily at Quid facit Marcus ? Explodit Marcus !
Mr. Dunn told us that in these six lessons three to four weeks' normal work was demonstrated. It is a high tribute both to him and to the boys that there was little that the majority of the class failed to understand and enjoy. Their enjoyment was shared by all who watched the demonstrations, and our warmest thanks are due to Magister and Discipuli alike.
WHILE other demonstrations aimed at showing the potentialities rather than the actual practice of the Oral Method, Dr. Loehry's demonstration was expressly intended to show the method in action, during a week's routine lessons. No one, therefore, expected to see those flashes of inspiration which come to Beginners' Classes in such demonstrations. But all were pleased to note the skill and thoroughness with which drills, demonstrated elsewhere, were applied here, and the readiness with which boys, when trained by this method, and skilfully led, are quite capable of building for themselves the unknown upon the known.
The subject of the demonstration was the teaching of the Future Perfect. Dr. Loehry showed how it, and for that matter any other tense, can be introduced by means of the familiar series if four verbs, surgo, ambulo, revenio, sedeo. The rest of the lessons were taker, up by consolidation and practice in various ways, daily tests and drills, use of the Exercitatio in Principia (this by the way went a little stickily) followed by its accompanying story and exercises, and finally English into Latin sentences, to test not the pupils, but Whether the teacher had succeeded in making the use of the tense clear to them.
A striking thing about these classes was the way in which useful Latin phrases were constantly bandied about, and the chief value of the demonstration as a whole was the way it showed that although the use of the Oral Method makes the comprehension of a grammatical point appear deceptively quick and easy, as much routine practice is required by this method as by any other.
Mr. PECKETT gave demonstrations of work with two groups of boys, one consisting of Sixth Formers, the other of boys at the beginning of their third year. With the Sixth Formers he read a Impitge from the seventh Eclogue and another one from the twentyApeotid book of the Iliad. The technique of question and answer In Uttin was clearly shown, " synonyms " were given either by Mr, Peckett or the boys and the meaning of a line or two brought out by explanation in Latin of Greek.
With the boys at the beginning of their third year, Mr. Peckett was reading a play about Perseus from " Ludi Persici." He began With question and answer in Latin about the story of Perseus, and, MN the reading progressed, showed how the various drills can be employed to remind the class of a construction. This can help to bring out the meaning of a passage, and, especially as " aliter Latine " is constantly used, serves to revise the rules of syntax and to give practice in varied ways of expressing a certain thought. In another lesson, the method of the "sententia longa" was shown. Five sentences, with a clear connection of thought running through them, were written on the board ; by question and answer in Latin the boys were lead to see the logical order of events, subordinate clauses were constructed and the five sentences reduced to one periodic sentence. This approach seems to be a very useful transitional stage between the writing of sentences and the composition of continuous prose.
IN HIS opening talk Mr. Arthur Munday, M.A., dwelt at some length on the necessity of maintaining Latin Composition as a oubject of Education and as an integral part of Latin Teaching. Having called the attention of his audience to the modern tendency to consider it as a highly expendible part of the curriculum, Mr. Munday advanced his thesis that to drop Latin Prose Composition from any stage of Latin teaching was to lose a powerful weapon in the armoury of Education. He characterised as " morally indefensible " the attitude of those educatoii, who, yielding to modern pressures, drop a good and tried subject of education merely because it is difficult.
Taking his lead from the dictum of Aristotle Every art seems to aim at an end, either the exercise of the faculty itself or in a result beyond the actual exercise of the faculty," Mr. Munday developed the two aspects or purposes envisaged in the teaching of Latin Prose Composition. The first is its value in itself as a discipline of the mind ; from this point of view, as an end in itself, Latin Composition holds of primacy of place among the many instruments of education ; for, besides being a perfect object lesson in the basic logic of all languages and demanding constantly of the student the maximum of attention, accuracy and sound judgment, it forces him to find the exact meaning of words and to give them their proper emphasis and subordination, thus teaching the student at the same time the fundamental anatomy of thought. To the objection that composition in modern foreign languages affords all these advantages Mr. Munday replied that composition in Latin and Greek, precisely because of their higher degree of inflection, demands of the student a far greater concentration of his mental forces than composition in a comparatively non-
Passing from these considerations of the objective value of Latin Composition, Mr. Munday hastened to point out that all that had been said about it as a discipline of the mind, and as a means to a deeper appreciation of the classics, was dependent for its truth on the use of a method that will make the most effective use of Latin Composition as an instrument of education. He described for us the various methods to be used at all the successive 11iiUm of teaching. Contrary to the opinion of some Latin teachers And text-
The second stage of teaching Latin Prose Composition is the %noition from simple, separate sentences to the periodic, which is acted by the technique of what Mr. Munday termed the " Sen-
When the student reaches the higher flights of Fifth and Sixth Form Latin Prose Composition a special technique is indicated ; pore Mr. Munday described the method he has found to be most affective : a prose is assigned, handed in, corrected by the teacher with suggested amelioration now and then ; in class the next day the mWdents, with their corrected individual versions before them, collaborate under the direction of the teacher in the production of n fair copy on the blackboard. The first step in the production is to determine the Latin Author's style that is exemplified andthe brighter as well as the lesser lights, and will also go against then to fix where the main divisions of the Latin sentence are to The very purpose of the exercise, which is, after all, to produce the fall. With these preliminaries agreed upon the class moves on to objectively best rendition of the prose that can be elicited from the choice of expressions to be used ; here, for every word and phrase, Lewis and Short are diligently and constantly consulted to verify Besides these difficulties of a psychological order, I would like and weigh the suggestions that come from the students, who all note two other dangers that can easily arise, but which are not the while jot down in their note-
FEW of us find time amid the bustle of a school term to do any reading for our own enjoyment and one of the pleasures of a Summer School is the knowledge that a period has been set aside for this very purpose. This year Mr. Dale read from Catullus, reminding us of many old favourites among the poems and introducing us to some with which we were less familiar. Much profit as well as pleasure was to be gained from the lucid explanation of the various metres and we particularly enjoyed the metrical versions which Mr. Dale proffered so modestly.
" Quid Dalius sine Lesbia faciat ? " queried someone in the lighthearted moments of the Latin Debate. In fact Mr. Dale did a very great deal without reference to that famous—or should I say infamous ?—lady, who made but a fleeting appearance. Among the shorter poems which were read at the beginning of the week was the well-
Of the two longer poems which were included the " Attis " is perhaps less often read. Its subject matter may not appeal to all, but no one could fail to enjoy hearing the poem read by one who reads as well as Mr. Dale. The " Attis " was followed by the Marriage of Peleus and Thetis," but unfortunately there was not time to read the whole of this. One becomes very conscious, even in a hurried reading, that Vergil must have had more than a nodding acquaintance with the works of Catullus.
The last group of poems was a selection of Elegiacs, in which the Jauntiness of our old friend " Arrius " was contrasted with the haunting loveliness of Catullus' funeral tribute to his brother. For epilogue, as it were, Mr. Dale quoted (very appropriately) from Housman's Shropshire Lad. His rendering of the local dialect Wkm most impressive. Only when someone offered compliments an this next morning did Mr. Dale admit to never having heard English as she is spoke in Salop ! For that slight deception we will forgive him, and thank him for a very enjoyable series of talks.
THE hopes of not a few who attended the School were tempered by it few vague fears. The Association appears to be fighting for both sides of the field at once, and many teachers find themselves leaving the traditional path only to slip upon the question why $esch Latin at all ? It was all very disconcerting, certainly not what they expected, and much more than they paid for. And it Wee therefore all the more trying of the lecturers sometimes to forget that behind some of the questions they were asked there lurked, unrecognised and the more disturbing for that, a second question of Purpose.
For instance, someone asked what one should tell a class which wanted to know what it was all for anyway ? The reply was that it the class were being taught properly they would accept the subject Without asking why. For this is surely both untrue and doubly Unhelpful. Children are not always able to make their problems explicit, nor should they be encouraged to unthinking obedience. Then, too, it seemed to me that the question (though shyly framed) when asked as much for the teacher's sake as for the children's, end it was dishonest to leave it unanswered—to encourage us to reform our own methods and disparage those of our predecessors With only the slightest reference to the fundamentals. Fundamental problems are to-
The path which most teachers of Classics read is neither broad nor easy, for it is thought (with much good sense) that the ancient writings are too subtle and their beauty too pure to be appreciated by vague, ill-
Nevertheless, when it soon became clear that we were being shown how the natural way to learn is by making mistakes, and one of the first aims of a teacher is to help the child make its mistakes as harmlessly as possible, it seemed to me (who although I am no real scholar yet admire scholarship and have been taught to recognise it) that with the delight in the method, the purpose still lay unrevealed, and many classes, though they would grow used to the method would remain unsatisfied. Normally the " aims of Classical teaching " are unveiled at once and the class is urged forward holding fast upon the silken, precious threads of " conjugation " and " paradigm." This is not good for the class because its mental eye is not fully developed ; but at least the teacher should always be looking towards the " aims," however bright and however remote, and I did not think that many of us were. We were all honest and very sincere (which one does not often find !) and often we were humble, but we would have done well to think more carefully of the value of scholarship, to have been given more chances to watch the depths rather than paddle in the shallows, and to have shown as vividly as we could that we ourselves were deeply inspired. The masters and mistresses who demonstrated and taught were rarely unable to do this (which alone would have made the School worth going to) always showed that the joy in which they dealt with their problems was born more of love than facility.
However, there were two " tours " arranged, one to Vriconium and the other to Chester (neither of which I enjoyed as much as perhaps I ought to have done, because I cannot enjoy ruins). Nevertheless though we looked far too much like a Sunday School Treat, I learned a lot. For such tours seem to emphasize how important to speak the language in order to appreciate it. Neither pt ions nor mosaics can do so much so well as the feeling of the do themselves forming within one's own mouth. And it is a personal experience of the language that the School seemed Wuys to witness, and to value. Mr. Dale read the poems of I 11fiditis, and the soft lilting sound of his voice with its light and de did as much as any formal " declaration of faith " to gain our support. There was never a moment, even when talking with the 101 I o " when this personal note was silenced. The staid formality of the proud schoolmaster-
BY F. W. GARFORTH
One of the most difficult tasks of the Latin teacher is to conduct a reading lesson which maintains the interest of his class and which conveys both to them and himself a sense of purpose and achievement. He has many obstacles to contend with. The first is to keep the whole class occupied and attentive during a procedure which is often a succession of individual performances : while the teacher wrestles with one pupil, the rest doodle or fall asleep. The textbook or "reader" is not always helpful ; the usual authors, or the passages selected from them, modified or not, rarely have sufficient intrinsic interest to hold the undivided attention of boys and girls who are used to reading lively stories in their own language. The very nature of the lesson, abetted by the slow pace at which it progresses, makes for incoherence and " bittyness ; these further diminish interest and detract from the meaning of what is read. There is, finally, the persistent temptation to rest content with an exercise in linguistics and to forget that one reads for matter as well as manner. It is hardly surprising that the result is so often boredom in the class and a sense of frustration in the teacher. How can this unhappy, but widely prevalent, state of affairs be remedied ? Before answering this question it will be wise to consider the aims of the reading lesson. These, it is suggested, are four, apart from such wider aims as the general education and development of the pupils. First, practice in the language : by means of the material read the teacher seeks to consolidate work already learnt, to give practice in applying existing knowledge and in the mental processes involved in understanding Latin, and to introduce new forms of grammar and syntax. This aim is usually dominant; whether it deserves to be is a matter of question. Second, to pass through the language to what it says : this is the fundamental motive for learning any " dead " language and the one which is most persistently neglected in the ordinary course of Latin teaching. Third, to kindle the pupils' interest both in the content of what is read and in the process of discovering it by translation. Fourth, to give the pupils the confidence and sense of mastery which come from successful achievement ; unfortunately, the outcome of too Many reading lessons is the reverse of this.
Success in the reading lesson depends to a great extent on the work done in previous months or years, especially on its thoroughness, on training in the recognition of inflexion endings and constructions, and on training in the recognition of the Latin meaning n the Latin order. Thoroughness goes without saying : unless the grammatical Inundations are soundly laid, a pupil's grasp of Latin will always be halting and uncertain. This principle, which is so obvious sod which receives such ready assent in theory, is nevertheless frequently overlooked in practice. Also neglected is the systematic and progressive learning of vocabulary—say, ten words a week, throe hundred a year, perhaps more. There are various ways of doing this, of which the best is perhaps the learning of words selected by the teacher from Latin passages read in class and noted [own in special notebooks. A little co-
Exercises aimed specifically at recognition of inflexion endings ; the teacher will have to compose and print these for himself, since school text-
Exercises consisting of simple sentences, both Latin-
Frequent drill and chorusing ; these are part of the tradition of Latin teaching, but some " modem"methods and text-
Latin conversation : many teachers who, perhaps, feel personally inadequate for teaching by pure Direct Method might very well use a few minutes of each lesson in question and answer in Latin, or in telling simple stories in Latin, or in what one might call " mental Latin "—comprehension of simple sentences by ear only. Work of this kind is common in Modern Language teaching ; its extension to Latin, and even Greek would prove invaluable in stimulating active, instead of merely passive, retention of inflexion forms. Exercises of this kind would assist greatly in eliminating " that slow labour which makes for dullness "* and in encouraging speed and fluency of reading. Training in the understanding of Latin in the Latin order can begin with the very first reading lesson ; by constant practice pupils should have acquired reasonable facility in it by the end of the first year. If the habit is well established, it will be carried over into succeeding years when, as reading material becomes more difficult, " word order " understanding is naturally harder. In the second and third years careful explanation of the complex sentence will smooth the way : and it is useless to pretend that at this stage there is not also room for a good deal of the analytical method of Fading. The learning of suitable passages of Latin by heart can facilitate immediate grasp of Latin, provided the passages are thoroughly understood and learnt parrot-
The first requisite is thorough preparation by the teacher of the passage to be read. (Strictly, this takes place before the lesson, but it is so intimately related to it that it can be regarded as part of the actual technique of teaching). Preparation should include : consideration of how much of a passage can be read in the available time, and choice of a suitable section if the whole is too long ; practice in reading aloud the selected passage ; selection of grammar points for explanation or revision ; selection of " background " points, if any, for elaboration ; an attempt to grasp the meaning and purpose of the passage as a whole, in order to be in a position to convey the same " wholeness " to the class ; selection of a few words for noting in vocabulary books.
After preparation comes the lesson itself. A teacher should have more than one technique at his command, but it is valuable to practice the class thoroughly in one to begin with, so that they may know and follow established procedure and be able to give closer attention to the Latin passage. The following is suggested —
Brief introduction to link with previous work and/or to explain what is coming ; the former usually by question and answer, the latter by the teacher's own statement.
If the passage to be read with the class has been selected from a longer passage, any part of the longer passage which precedes the selected passage should be translated or explained by the teacher.
Reading aloud of the whole of the selected passage by the teacher, followed by questions to test any comprehension so far. It is better to wait until the passage has been translated before asking pupils to read it in Latin ; it is impossible to read intelligently what one does not understand.
Translation sentence by sentence for each sentence the following method
the teacher reads it in Latin
he then asks if there are any difficulties in the sentence, of grammar or vocabulary ; for the sake of fluency these difficulties should be cleared away before, and not during, translation. Wherever possible, meanings should be got by derivation or intelligent guessing.
he asks the whole class to work out the meaning either of the whole sentence or of one or more clauses ;
he then asks one pupil to translate ; it is essential every pupil should exercise his mind on the sentence ; this will not happen if the class knows from the outset who is to translate it. This is one simple device for securing the maximum of attention from the whole class.
the pupil %i ill need some help in translating, but this should be kept to the minimum ; and as far as possible he should be made to help himself or, where this fails, to seek assistance from the rest of the class through the teacher, not directly from the teacher. He should be encouraged, too, to get the meaning in the Latin order if he can ; the teacher can help here by repeating the Latin with some exaggeration of intonation or emphasis to convey the sense.
a more polished translation should be elicited from the pupil or his class if the first attempt is unsatisfactory ;
the pupil reads the sentence in Latin.
When the whole of the selected passage has been read sentence by sentence, an attempt should be made to convey its meaning as a whole, whether it is description, narrative or thought. For this, two or three of the brightest pupils should be asked to translate it over again rapidly ; others can then read it again in Latin.
Comprehension of the content of the passage, both in itself and in relation to any other connected passages already read. Understanding can be tested by question and answer, by asking pupils to summarise or repeat the content of the passage in their own words, and in other ways
Explanation or revision of grammar and syntax points.
Elaboration of " background," if any.
In all this, three aims are paramount : ease and fluency of translation ; understanding of the passage as a connected whole which has something to say worth knowing ; and the interest of the pupils.
It is of the essence of good teaching that it should not be tied to any plan ; no teacher will want to adhere rigidly to any one technique or pattern of conducting a lesson. Hence, while to have some such basic pattern as the above is valuable, it is essential to have others. There are some excellent suggestions in the A.M.A. publication The Teaching of Classics, and in H. K. Hunt's Training through Latin. Another method which does not appear to be mentioned by either of these is to divide• the class into groups, each with its leader and scribe, and ask each group to prepare its own translation of the passage ; these will be compared and corrected later and an approved version worked out with the whole class.
Whatever method is used, timing is important ; a lesson should usually be a rounded whole and should not drag on beyond the bell. If there is no clock in the class-
Far more, of course, is involved in the success of a reading lesson than secure foundations and correct techniques. The personality and degree of enthusiasm of the teacher are of obvious importance ; so, too, is the status of the subject in the school, 11' hit in, like Religious Knowledge, can suffer both from inadequate 1MV Idlowance and from the antipathy of the Head or Senior er or Mistress. Nevertheless, it is the writer's view that much n teaching at the present time is ineffective very largely through ention to technique and to the principles of learning and of tiage structure which determine technique. It is also his iression that American teachers, being less tied to tradition, Alld having had to maintain the claims of Latin in schools very different from the English Grammar School, have made better Kress in this respect than English teachers. Without the opportunity for first-
In English schools to-
Arising from the minutes of the previous meeting, the president announced that there would be a considerable increase in the Boarding Fees payable at the 1955 Summer School, to be held in Durham. Before proposing the name of the new President, Mr. Peckett suggested that every member should be asked to enroll at least one new member. The President, seconded by Mr. Dale, proposed that Mr. A. W. Eagling should be elected President for the year 1954-
The Committee, as printed on page 2 of the cover, was then elected, Messrs. C. H. Craddock and W. G. Boyd, and Miss D. F. Dennis, being co-
The Treasurer's Report for 1953 showed £16 profit on the Week-
The Editor of Latin Teaching reported that well over 500 copies of each issue were sold to members and non-
Thanks was expressed to Mr. Munday's helpers and the Classical Association for their help in distributing the Week-
lies Dodd proposed a vote of thanks to the Head Mistress of Margaret's and her secretary and the domestic staff for the excellence of the catering and accommodation. This was seconded by Mr. Rowe and carried unanimously.
Mr Brown seconded by Mr. Pye proposed a vote of thanks to Officers of the Association and to the Lecturers and Demonstrators for a successful Summer School.